The value-context barriers of the technical students while studying the humanities
Consideration of the particularities of the value-context barriers of the technical students in the process of the humanities studying. Humanitarian training of future engineers of technical high school as well as students of other technical professions.
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The value-context barriers of the technical students while studying the humanities
This article considers the particularities of the value-context barriers of the technical students while studying the humanities.
Key words: humanization of the education, humanitarian training of the technical students, psychological barrier, context sphere, value and context barrier.
barrier student humanitarian engineer
The sphere of the university education represents a complex system, where there is a necessity on the threshold of the XXIst century of the humanizationas the whole educational system of the university as well as its separate elements. The high education is regarded by a number of the researchers as the symbol of the society stability, however all the modern society problems, typical for the society are reflected in the system of the education. So, the total commercial studies at the universities put under the question the value of the high education, the erudition as a moral value. That's why one of the strategic goals of the reform of the high education is to establish the balanced rate of the specialists in the different directions. The number of the researchers underlines that there have recently been changes in the hierarchy of the humanitarian, scientific and technical specialists' training: the technical training is regarded as the most prestigious and perspective one. The number of the studies underlines that there is a need to prepare the expert with encyclopedic knowledge, ready to fulfill different kinds of the activities: not only in the field of the production and service, but innovations and science and research.
In the connection with this they put forward the definite requirements towards «…personality of the technical student graduator or the technical specialty of the university: the level of the engineering knowledge, including the knowledge of the technique and technology, the skill to carry out long term forecast of the engineer society and the others; intellectual activity; personal qualities- sociability, high level of the empathy, goal-orientation, ability for the cooperation, integrity, moral and will qualities; commercial abilities - knowledge and understanding of the economics and business laws, financial and commercial knowledge, quick withs» [3, p. 27].
The researchers' attention paid to particularities of the professional training of the future engineers can be explained specifically by the absence of the whole systematic approach towards humanitarian training of the students of the technical high school and technical professions, the existing studies do not completely correspond to the realities and facts of the modern world.
The analysis of the state standard shows that students permanently do a bigger volume of works in humanities together with the reduction of the school hours in curriculum devoted to these subjects. Besides, there is unequivocally a question about the role of the technical students' humanitarian training and its significance in the professional growth of the high technical school graduator. The particular role is devoted in this process to the humanitarian training of the students. The efficiency of the humanitarian training is provided by observing the following rules: learning the methods of the creative world transformation; goal-oriented creation of the special culture of the thinking; providing the spiritual personality growth in the process of the technological activity; creation of the conditions for learning the human values, accumulated in the scientific and technical sphere; development of the intellectual students' activity and their ability to create them in the polysemantic context in the process of the research activity; formation of the systematic thinking and the whole world vision . humanitarian training of the students of the technical high school is regarded as the systematic complex, which means a variety of the independent systems rationally interacting with each other .
The problem of the students' humanitarian training is partially represented in the scientific literature. There are differences between the level of the students' training, which «are caused by the contradictions between: changing views upon the contemporary educational paradigm and the traditional approach to the humanitarian training of the students of the technical high school; the objective need of the society in the specialists of the new type and insufficient level of the professional competence of the graduators; requirements, imposed by the labour market towards staff qualification, and the absence of the system of the students' humanitarian training, providing the professional orientation, corresponding to the real conditions of the labor market; the content wholeness of the professional activity and fragmentarity of knowledge acquisition by student through the variety of the interdisciplinary links; process and dynamic ways to fulfill the professional activity and stereotypical and static orientation of realization of the students' learning activity; social type of the professional activity, group work and particular individual form of the students' knowledge acquisition; professional's involvement into the labor process at the creative level and support of the student's learning- primary mnemic functions; the student's objective position and principally initiative subjective position of the future engineer or a technical worker; retrospective character of the educational activity and students' orientation towards future contents of the professional activity towards the emerging situations and conditions of the work activity; traditional and classical didactics of the high school and innovative and educational processes which occur in the educational environment..» [4, с. 10-11].
The value attitude of the students towards humanities is conditioned by the student's interaction with the surrounding people, first of all, with teachers and fellow students. As the particular display of these relations can be mutual assistance, mutual understanding, co-operation, mutual support, empathy, mutual influence. however when there are value barriers these components transfer into the rank of the opposites, demonstrating themselves as mutual misunderstanding, counteraction, the absence of the support, empathy, sympathy.
Any profession is «nothing but, the direction of the life purposes, which gives significance to the man's actions and they are useful for himself and those people he is connected with.» [7, с. 278]. consequently, every type of the educational and professional activity in a priory has its sense and meaning for the man. In this reference the conscious human activity is more or less conscious decision of the definite problems. This point of the view is shared by such big scientists, as: L.S. Vigotskii, А.N. Leontiev, S.L. Roubinshtein, А.V. Petrovskii, L.М. Fridman, V.А. Slastenin and others. М.I. Diachenko suggested that together with forming value orientations and approaching the job representations to the reality, the personality constantly evaluates this representation from the point of the view of the realization of her expectations from this profession which is reflected in the relation towards it .
At the stage of the professional training a lot of students feel the disappointment from the profession. It leads to the small degree of realizing the sense of the education. They feel dissatisfaction with some educational subjects particularly with humanities; they have doubts in the correctness of the professional choice, the interest to the studies falls. As the result, E.F. Zeer believes there is a crisis of the professional self-determination .
Before becoming a professional, the future specialist has to assimilate a lists of the special knowledge and skills, and in the educational activity there is a priory, according to N I. Naйnko, some emotional stress- tension in some difficult situations- which is provoked by the assessment of his activity, responsibility growth, big intellectual and will loading, the necessity to overcome exhaustion and extreme tension of the forces .
In V. P. Zinchenko's opinion, the main problem of the existing educational system consists in the fact that the traditional system of the education and bringing up (which imposes values) isn't efficient, denies the opportunity to transfer the values, but it rouses the progressive neurotization of the young people, thanks to it we can observe mass «stagnation of the spirituality». It is necessary to realize that the further improvement of the theory and methods of the education and training as forming (imposing) values are deeply vicious, because it unavoidably leads to the reinforcement of this mass neurosis, and as consequence, to the reinforcement of the negative symptoms .
The system of the high professional education is called to help students «find themselves», to choose and to build their own world of the values, to find the creative ways to solve the scientific and life problems, to reveal the reflexive world of «Self» and to learn how to manage it .
In order to creatively realize in the profession the future specialists should use his personal resource, hidden in his context sphere.
The context sphere of the man according to the research made by I.V. Abakoumova, P.N. Ermakov, V. T. Fomenko and others. - this is a «sphere of the personal contexts, launching the psychological mechanisms of the self-development, which contribute to the realization of the individual talent» .
The context sphere of the young people can be developed according to the productive and reproductive scenarios. As we are interested, mainly, into the outcome, content side of the context forming and those subjective barriers which interfere into this process, the consequence of the context display is not so important. however the desire to describe the dynamics of the context building brings up the aspiration for the order, natural desire to rearrange the contexts in the systematic order. The most obvious characteristic of the context is diad nature of the context, its permanent dynamics from the minimum up to maximum saturation: from discovering the sense to the revealed one, from the indefinite sense to the definite one (in the frame of the value attitude), from grasping sense to the the realized one. The facts of the context forming dynamics, which were mentioned above, demonstrate «the context growth», «the context enlargement», «context enrichment» of the conscious. In the concept model of the context context forming we can observe the opposite phenomenon, expressing, for example, the context extinction, its absorptivity by the others, repression, regression. Moreover, in correspondence with the concrete context contents, the development of the personality's context sphere can be evaluated with plus and minus, and also in an indefinite way .
In I.V. Abakoumova's concept of the context building it is shown, that the criteria of the context sphere development are just two types of the senses .
The transfer on the new level of the development suggests overcoming of the definite corresponding context barrier. In the humanities, including pedagogics, the context barriers are treated as the discrepancy of the sense of the statements, requirements, demands, orders of the communication partners, making restrictions from the mutual understanding and interaction.
In the works of Slavina L.S. two kinds of the sense barriers were distinguished. The barrier of the first type is the attitude to some requirements. The principal reason leading to the context barrier of the first type is misunderstanding of the motives, which bring about this or that action, or some behaviour. The barrier of the second type is the relation to a particular person. The second barrier appears especially when you repeat the same actions or you try the same influence, especially when the do not give any result .
In the context of the contemporary sense theory, when the sense is treated as initiating ideas, as the bias spark of the human knowledge, we need to describe the barriers in the educational cognition as value and context one, preventing from revealing senses, reflexion upon context attitudes, context forming motivation. Before distinguishing the value and context barriers from the context one, it is necessary, first of all, to address to the notion of the psychological barrier.
In the psychological literature we can find different understanding of the psychological barriers, which are considered as: mental states, displaying as the inadequate passivity, preventing from making these or those actions (S.U. golovin, А.А. Bodalev, А.N. Soukhova, М.А. Podimov, М.P.Yaroshevskii); motive, stopping the certain activity or actions, particularly, communication with the group of the people or a particular person (Vassiluk F.E.); character features (А. Adler, К. horney, О. Fenehell); particularities of the personality experience (c. Rogers); personality features (А. hall, P. hill); different forms of the adaptation to the sociopsychological climate (V.I. Antonuk); individual particularities of the cognitive processes (D.М. Zavalishina); habits, rigidity of the thinking (R.M. granovskaya); constraints, which are imposed on their own individuality and philosophical believes (L.М. Mindell).
In the national science in the context of the activity approach the barriers are regarded as the «critical point», preventing from further activity development, producing the definite emotions and stimulating the psychological activity for their overcoming .
Barriers as difficulties in learning and processing the new information are thoroughly studied in the psychology of the intellect and cognitively-oriented didactics. The particular interest is attracted to the works of А.I. Pilipenko and, especially, his theory of psycho-cognitive barriers (PcB) in the education. In A.I. Pilipenko's opinion in the modern, quickly changing world, when the old dogmata crash and new ideas appear with a terrible speed, it is difficult to assess such personality qualities as the ability to demolish stereotypes, to think originally and in unstandardized manner. «This is the creative personality which is the object of researchers' close attention, because it should play the main role in building the new society. They say: “ Who has the information - owns the world”, we can add- the most efficient person is the one who can be the most effective in his “world owning “, who can make the most possible of the information he received. You shouldn't be the prisoners of your knowledge. high on the list, as it seems, the question about his ability to master psychological barriers of the different level, is the compound part of the general task of the formation and efficient functioning of the creative personality» .
In the wake of the representations of the PcB in the education, they reasonably put as the basis of the educational process, cause and effect model of the mental difficulties of the students reflecting well their intellectual problems, first of all while studying physics and mathematics and natural and scientific subjects .
It is extremely important that the personally-oriented education took into the consideration the psychological and cognitive barriers of the technical style of the education. Logics of their introduction are supported by the fact that in the course of the historical development the mankind created two rational discursive types of the world cognition: empirical and theoretical. The studies suggest that the most part of the students stay adherents of the common sense of the technical style of thinking until the last years of the university.
In order to realize these difficulties, which appear in the educational process in the connection with the problems of initiating the students' context forming it is necessary to reconsider so-called value and context barriers and show their qualitative difference from the context barriers.
Following a number of the scholars we treat the value and context barrier as a mental state. This emotion appears before the activity or in the process of this activity. In the first case the value and context barrier doesn't allow starting the activity, in the second one it stops it, besides the personality can be unaware of internal and external reasons, which bring the feeling of value-context barrier. But so long as this feeling appears, personality can use different types of psychological defenses in order to smooth neuropsychological tension.
Thus, the undertaking analysis of the difficulties of the technical students while studying humanities allowed us to make the following conclusion.
The studies of the humanities by the technical students cause the problems which are connected to the frustration. The discrepancy between the desire of getting some definite specialization and profession (in many cases the main goal of the student when he enters the University) and the requirement to satisfy the social needs (obligatory studies of the humanities) leads to the different stress situations of the cognitive as well as social type.
As it was demonstrated in the numerous researches, the success of the education depends on the students' attitude to the learning, on their motives, which lie at the basis of their educational activity and those barriers, which appear in the process of the educational activity and interfere with the qualitative knowledge acquisition, but the personal student's growth. The quality of the acquired knowledge, the desire to use them and the general professional level are in direct proportion.
Studying at the university, the students get the knowledge of the utilitarian kind, which increase their level of the erudition and competence, it develops their feeling of self-confidence and self-reference, increase their self-esteem.
1. Abakoumova I.V. Learning and context: context building in the educational process. (Psychological and didactic approach). - Rostov-on-Don: Publishing house of SFU, 2003.
2. Abakoumova I.V., Ermakov P.N., Roudakova I.А. context orientation in pedagogics: new understanding of the didactic methods. - Rostov-on-Don: Publishing house of RSU, 2006.
3. Batotserenova K.g. The bases of the humanitarian training of the technical students: thesis … of Doctor of Pedagogical sciences. - Moscow, 2000.
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