Should the government of Kazakhstan gives to the women the same rights in labor sphere such as for men

Consideration and characteristic essence and content of gender equality. Determine the need for equality between men and women in labor sphere. Research of the specific features of discrimination in labor sphere between women and men in Kazakhstan.

Рубрика Социология и обществознание
Вид реферат
Язык английский
Дата добавления 03.02.2016
Размер файла 18,7 K

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Nazarbayev Intellectual Scholl of Physics and Mathematics in Uralsk

Should the government of Kazakhstan gives to the women the same rights in labor sphere such as for men

Dosanova Saltanat

Oral Kdirshayev

Introduction

According to the Agency of statistics of Kazakhstan (2014) 63,6% of females and only 36,4% of males finished magistracy, in addition 58% of females and 42% of males finished postgraduate studies. However males got salary on 25-30% higher than females. Why women finished magistracy more often than men however they got lower salary?

In the beginning of the 19th century women in most countries could not still participate in elections because only men had a right of speech. While society was developing many women showed discontent with their life. Because of it in the ending of 19th century a lot of people started to fight with discrimination of female and today this problem is still current in some countries.

This issue is very important now because of some reasons. It includes that gender inequality in almost any sphere decrease developing of society, economic growth and reduced labor productivity. For instance, losses of high child mortality, low level of immunization rates of children exactly connected with the level of education and independence of mother.

I have chosen this topic because I am a girl and I want to reach justice among people. I have some principles and values in my life and one of them is that all the people including male and female have equal rights in labor sphere.

Aims

The purpose of this research is to answer to the question should the government of Kazakhstan gives to the women the same rights in labor sphere such as for men?

· Why males and females must have the equal rights in labor sphere?

· What is the main reason of gender discrimination in labor sphere?

Intended outcome is in Kazakhstan there is discrimination in labor sphere between women and men and the government should equalize the rights of both genders.

What is the gender equality? According to the article of Gender Equality Division, Department of Justice and Equality of Ireland gender equality existed when males and females had the equal rights, opportunities and capabilities in all stratums of society that included involving in economic sphere and making solutions and also when different behaviors and requirements of both genders was considering (“What is Gender Equality?”, 2012). In the past most of the women had not any rights, today in the modern world gender inequality is a global and significant issue and there are some countries in which this problem remains one of the barriers to human development. Nowadays, there are a lot of spheres in which rights of women are not considered. For instance, right on property, social politic, labor sphere, difference in wages and so on. In this research I told about only one branch-gender inequality in labor sphere.

The first proof of my argument is according to the article of Doctor of Economic Sciences and Associate Professor Aigul Maydyrova (2014) stated that Kazakhstan should have women who will participate in the solving of problems as well as men. It means that if we want have literate electorate which will participate in politic of government, we should attract the female for deciding issues. In addition, the author mentioned that there were women on the lower and middle level of work, however on the higher positions there were not sufficient number of female. The Professor said that the main cause of gender inequality in labor sphere in Kazakhstan were traditional gender stereotypes.*

The second proof of my argument is according to the article of Peter Matanle who is Senior Lecturer and Director of Research and Innovation at the School of East Asian Studies and his colleagues (2014) claimed that development and improving of the rights and opportunities of women is a reason for a fair and developed country. gender kazakhstan labor

Another perspective of this issue is according to the research of Naila Kabeer who is Professor of Gender and Development at the Gender Institute, London School of Economics and Political Science (2004) stated that in labor sphere men should prevail over women. Professor said thatsafety of women in labor sphere is not guaranteed, job-satisfaction of females is lower than males. Moreover, women are worry about their reputation in modern community because in some cultures working together of woman and man is unacceptable.

*This resource is in Russian language, however this articleis very significant for my research. Because the author of this article is from Kazakhstan, she has credible information about real position of women in my country in labor sphere and she shows her own opinion about gender inequality in labor sphere. Moreover in our country English language is not so popular and most of the researchers write their researches in Kazakh or Russian language.

In the research I used only one method. I conducted survey among women and men with age from 25 to 50 years. In my opinion this category of people can really understand and evaluate this issue. I have chosen this audience exactly because almost all of them already had a family experience in the life and some knowledges in the question of the gender inequality in labor sphere. Therefore, this category of humans could give me the most complete response. To my mind, if I conducted the survey among both genders, it helped me to know different opinions of different genders.

Moreover, I asked 10 females and 10 males with the different perspectives, with the different ages and nations in order to get the most credible results. Also I conducted survey only in my own town, among ordinary people-my relatives and experts in this question - teachers of Global Perspectives of Nazarbayev Intellectual School. There were some advantages of conducting survey. It included opportunity to know a lot of points of views of different people, also opportunity to consider and analyze opinions of both genders. In addition, conducting of survey allowed comparing the opinions of ordinary people and experts. In order to achieve my main Aim I decided to design 9survey questions. These questions covered my research question, particular about how government should or should not accept and protect women rights in Kazakhstan.

The main purpose of my research was to investigate the current position of Kazakhstan in question of gender inequality and response to the question should the government of Kazakhstan equalize the rights of women and men.

For answering my research questions I conducted this survey among 10 women and 10 men also 10 of them were experts in the question of gender inequality and 10 of them were ordinary people. All the respondents were between the ages from 25 to 50.In this survey were participated people with different nations: Kazakhs, Russians, Tatars and Ukrainians. In addition there were people with different professions from builders to teachers with high qualifications.

The first question showed that most of the experts stated that the gender stereotypes were one of the most significant causes of the gender inequality in labor sphere. While ordinary people thought that it is the traditions and history of your own country.For instance, one ordinary woman said that “If in your country were gender inequality for a long time and it was normal for people, even this country would be democracy history of country impacted on the appearing gender inequality”. Moreover, there were a few people from ordinary men who could not answer to the question. That is interesting that some of the women-experts and ordinary women almost did not see any inequality.

Most of the people claimed that the government of Kazakhstan should equalize the rights of both genders in labor sphere. However there were some people from every group who thought that in Kazakhstan the light of gender inequality was already fixed. Mostly experts said that every person has the equal rights in the workplace and if women and men implemented the same work well, it did not matter what is your gender.

So most of the respondents thought that in our country there are some manifestations of gender inequality and government should equalize the rights of both genders.

Conclusion

To sum up, it was possible to say that the opinions of the local experts and ordinary people were helped to investigate this issue and clearly understood position of women in modern Kazakhstan.

The Associate Professor Maydyrova from Kazakhstan claimed that women should have the same rights as men because our country needs a literate electorate. It means that gender equality is beneficial for the country. However, local experts from my primary sources claimed that the main reason for non-discrimination in labor sphere is that all the people have the same opportunities to work and get the equal salary independent of their gender.

The Associate Professor Maydyrova also mentioned the main reason of gender discrimination in the workplace which is gender stereotypes. Also, local experts stated similar opinion concerning gender stereotypes are one of the essential causes of discrimination in labor sphere. However, most of the ordinary respondents who were surveyed thought that the reasons of the issue could be traditional and history of the country.

While experts from Kazakhstan and foreign countries revealed that government of our country should equalize the rights of both genders in the workplace almost all local experts in this issue and ordinary people agreed with them. It was possible to suggest that my intended outcome was justified.

References list

1. Kabeer, N. (2004). Globalization, labor standards, and women's rights: dilemmas of collective (in) action in an interdependent world. Feminist Economics, 10(1), 3-35.

2. Matanle, P., Ishiguro, K., & McCann, L. (2014). Popular Culture and Workplace Gendering among Varieties of Capitalism: Working Women and their Representation in Japanese Manga. Gender, Work & Organization, 21(5), 472-489. doi:10.1111/gwao.12050

3. Maydyrova, A. (2014). Gender Inequality in Human Capital of the Nation. Herald of the Buketov Karaganda state University, 2(74), 149-155.

4. What is Gender Equality? (2012, March 7) Retrieved from http://www.genderequality.ie/en/GE/Pages/WhatisGE

5. Gender Inequality: women are more often finished magistracy then men, however lower salary (n.d). Mojazarplata.kz. Retrieved from

6. http://mojazarplata.kz/main/kz-news/gendernoe-ravenstvo-zhenschiny-chasche-muzhchin-zakanchivajut-magistraturu-no-zarabatyvajut-menqshe

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