Peculiarities of translation of Russian borrowings in English
The role of the vocabulary of the English language, borrowing foreign words. Classification of loans, the distribution of Russian words in the English period. The essence of the Russian borrowings denoting concepts, their characteristics and specifics.
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1.1 VOCABULARY OF ENGLISH
1.2 BORROWING IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE
1.3 CLASSIFICATION OF BORROWINGS
1.4 INTEREST IN RUSSIAN LANGUAGE
2. DISTIBUTION OF RUSSIAN WORDS IN ENGLISH TO THE PERIOD
3. CLASSIFICATION OF RUSSIAN BORROWINGS BY DESIGNATING THE CONCEPT.
LIST OF REFFERENCES
Human development - the development of all its constituent cultures , and, accordingly, all languages. Culture exposed to a particular historical development and independently from other cultures , and ( in a very greater extent ) in cooperation with them. Contacts occur in all areas - politics, economics , art, everyday life - and lead to significant changes in the lifestyle , outlook , and , of course, language . Culture mutually borrow phenomena and concepts ; languages - their designations . Thus there is enrichment of cultures and languages of different nations. The term " enrichment" is not, however, be understood as implicit acceptance of any borrowing in language that happens often and it leads to a glut of alien and unjustified elements in the presence of their own , the usual signs of the various phenomena . Borrowing must be deliberate ; if possible means to manage their own language should avoid extraneous inclusions. Should not, however , go to the other extreme - complete denial of any borrowings and was trying to avoid not only new but already and replace entrenched in aboriginal language borrowed elements . The need for such replacement is not only highly controversial , but are unlikely to be feasible in some linguists proposed scale : many of the latest borrowing come to refer to the new language as having no analogues in the culture , events; borrowed many words are spoken and internationalism in the current era of globalization greatly facilitate international communication ; sometimes attempt to replace foreign words primordial creates cumbersome and unsuitable for use of the phrase (flat instead of round flatbread pizza in Arab countries ); in some cases, when a new word appears that it is also constructed of foreign language elements borrowed previously and therefore not perceived as foreign ( replacing the word on the price list price list (price current)). Thus, the scientific approach to the problem of linguistic borrowing should follow the middle path and take into account the functional and stylistic aspects of this phenomenon - of this or that word to a certain style and field use.
Related borrowing devoted to the works of many researchers. Its relevance over time is not lost , but rather enhanced , since the dynamics of the process of borrowing increases. The purpose of this paper is to explore the extensive material accumulated in linguistics , taking into account the existence of different opinions on this issue , and outline the key aspects of it. English is very convenient for this kind of study , since , according to various estimates , 70-75 % of its vocabulary is borrowing protruding object of study of this work . To achieve the above purpose it is necessary to solve the following tasks:
- To determine the causes of foreign language elements in the English language;
- Consider what kinds of loans allocated by linguists ;- Explore the changes that have been borrowing in the process of adaptation to the host system (in this case English ) language;
- To reveal the results of this phenomenon for the language ;
- Review existing approaches to translation borrowing English into Russian.
The structure of this work is determined by the above mentioned tasks. The first chapter describes the process of borrowing , its causes and results, as well as borrowing some foreign language element , its classification and function in the host language . The second chapter is devoted to issues that arise in the translation of these elements into another language. Practical part of the work is a translation of texts containing these phenomena . In the translation comments focuses on the analysis of the difficulties associated with the transfer of borrowing.
Borrowing - is the process by which language appears in some foreign language and fixed element ; as a foreign language element itself . It is an integral part of the operation and the historical changes of language, one of the main sources of replenishment of the vocabulary ; as a full-fledged language element that is part of its lexical wealth, serving as the source of new roots , word-building elements and precise terms .
Borrowing in languages is one of the most important factors in their development. Borrowing process lies at the heart of linguistic activity .
Sound and formal uniformity within a single language is a consequence of borrowing among other individuals ; occurs in the same manner and borrow elements lexicon of one language in another language - through the interaction of their carriers.
Share of foreign elements in the great languages , though accurately estimate their number is not possible, as due to the constant increase in the number of foreign language elements penetrating into the language, and because of the actions of the assimilation process , which makes it difficult to determine the origin of the word.
In each language are the following layers : words, inherent in all languages of the same family ; words common to a group , a subgroup of related languages ; native language-specific words ; loanwords . On the example of the English language , it looks like this:
- Indo-European word ( common to many languages): mother, brother, daughter, wolf, meat, hear, hundred, be, stand;
- The German word : bear, finger, say, see, white, winter;
- West German words : age, ask, give, love, south;
- Proper English ( Anglo- Saxon words ): lady, lord, boy, girl;
- From related languages : knight, low, flat, fellow, sale ( from Old Norse ), rummer, napper, fitter ( in Dutch );
- From another language system : Soviet, sputnik, steppe, taiga ( from Russian), judo, samurai, sumo ( from Japanese ), xylophone, epoch, echo ( from the Greek ) .
This is a common classification of the vocabulary of the English language. But it's not unequivocally true. For example, a word taken for Indo-European , it may be borrowed from other proto-languages , as trade and other relations between nations have existed since the most ancient times.
Words borrowed from the most ancient times, and fully assimilated the host language, are not perceived as foreign , and to establish their origin is often difficulty even for the linguist (table - from the French ) .
Often difficult to establish exactly what the language of the group or subgroup is the source of the word (the word figure could come either directly from Latin figura, or through the French figure). Another problem - the distinction of the terms " origin of the word " and " the source of borrowing ."
Many words are borrowing more and the second degree (for example , the word valley came into English from Latin via French). [14 ; p.31 ]
Despite some mistakes, this classification shows the magnitude of the phenomenon : we see that the majority of English words are borrowed - in an earlier or later period , from near or far the language system .
1.1 VOCABULARY OF ENGLISH
Modern English, with the specific features of its sound and grammatical structure and vocabulary of the stands before us as the product of a long historical development, during which the language is subject to diverse changes due to various reasons. As in sound composition and in grammatical structure and vocabulary of the language throughout history there were significant, it is more gradual, the more rapid changes in most cases due to internal laws of its development, and sometimes, especially in the vocabulary of the under external influences associated with the historical destiny of the English people. Changes affect all aspects (levels, lines, aspects) of linguistic structure, but they operate in different ways. The historical development of each level depends on the specific causes and conditions that encourage shifts in the lexical structure of language, in its phonetic (phonological) organization, in its grammatical structure.
Vocabulary of a language is in a state of flux. This mobility and variability due to the fact that the language, and especially its vocabulary, as directly related to production, and from every other people in social activities. To language could fully perform its main function is activated - the most important means of communication function - its vocabulary should respond quickly to reflect and record the changes taking place in all spheres of human life and activity: in manufacturing, in science, in outlook, in the socio- economic relations in the home.
Throughout the long history of the English language have been significant changes in all its aspects. If some text directly compare the IX century, for example, an excerpt from "AEON", with some modern text, the difference seems so great that at first glance it would seem that we are dealing with two completely different languages. However, this difference is the result of a long and gradual development, during which the English language has never ceased to be himself. Thus, the language and the language of the IX century XXI century represent stages in the development of the same moving system - stages, separated by a long series of incremental changes in their totality constitute the overall development of language.
Vocabulary, ie the set of words of a language is the most mobile and most rapidly developing part of it. That language vocabulary is particularly sensitive to all changes in the nation's history - the carrier of the language, and not only to changes in the economic structure, but also to all kinds of changes in production, culture, science, life and so on.
In the vocabulary of the English language has undergone for more than a thousand years of its history is very significant changes - more significant than, say, French or German. Vocabulary of modern English is certainly much richer than the vocabulary of Old English. This enrichment came in English as the internal resources - compounding, affixation and rethinking words and by borrowing words from other languages, which in English due to the specific conditions of the historical life of the English people, play a more significant role than, for example in German.
The composition of the English Dictionary reflect the adoption of Christianity, faced with the Latin civilization British, Scandinavian and Norman conquest (after which the English language has lost some of his native vocabulary of the, including a number of words of the everyday use), Hundred Years War, the rise of the bourgeoisie, the Renaissance, the growth of sea power of England, colonial conquests, trade and industry, science and literature, the growth and development of self-consciousness of the working class, the first and second world war.
As a result of all these processes operating within the vocabulary of modern English, retaining its basic core of native English words, is, however, very mixed in origin.
Vocabulary of modern English language is a complex combination of different elements that build on one another throughout the history of the language and engage in a variety of relationships between them.
Composition of the English lexicon, like any language, is changing over time. Many words that were in use in earlier periods, disappearing from the living language or because they referred to objects and concepts are outdated, no longer be used in the changed conditions of life, or because they are replaced by other words that have become commonplace. Such words, coming from the living use can, however, be used in the literary language with special lexical targets.
Quantitative growth and qualitative changes of vocabulary related to the history of the people, the creator and bearer of the language. Modern English vocabulary be thought a product of a variety of ages. Due to the fact that the development of language - all sides, including the vocabulary of - occurs gradually, we find in the dictionary of modern English words have developed in different historical periods, resulting in a variety of ways to replenish it, using various means of word-formation relating to the different moments of English history.
The analysis shows that the process leading to the development of the vocabulary of the English language at all stages was derivation, ie, the formation of words from lexical material is present. Word formation is though not the only, but the main means of enriching vocabulary. However, neither the language never treated alone own lexical means. Among the processes associated with the completion of the dictionary of the Russian language, a certain place is the borrowing of foreign vocabulary as a way of nomination of new phenomena, as well as replacement of existing items. Such elements do not immediately receive general acceptance and are firmly in the language.
Thus, enrichment of vocabulary is accomplished not only by means of word-resources of the language, but also borrowing from other languages, ie, the dictionary is constantly enriched by new elements, partly borrowed from other languages, partly re-established in the language. These loans can be caused by different reasons and in different ways manifest in the development of the vocabulary of the individual languages. Languages such that nothing ever borrowed from the other, there was not.
The third way to enrich the vocabulary of - onomatopoeia (imitative wordbuilding, echoism) is compared with the first two much smaller value. In this case, the new words are formed on the basis of sound, somehow associated with this phenomenon. Its use is limited to digital audio. This way you can designate only that affects hearing. For example, the sounds emitted by various birds and zhavotnymi: to coo 'Moo', to buzz 'Buzz'.
1.2 BORROWING IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE
A child who learns to speak, can acquire most of their skills from any one person, say from his mother, but he will hear other speakers and will learn some skills and from them. Even the basic elements of the vocabulary of that child learns at this time, do not repeat any of the exact skills of adults. Throughout his life does not cease speaking learn language skills from others, and these zaimstvavaniya, though less significant, are very numerous and are drawn from various sources.
Each language team learns something from their neighbors. Objects created by both nature and performance, moving from one team to another, exactly as certain models - processes, methods of warfare, religious rituals or forms of individual behavior.
In the field of borrowing distinguish borrowing dialect when borrowed phenomenon come from the same language, and borrowing from the field of culture (cultural borrowing), when borrowed phenomenon come from another language.
History borrowing more than any other region of the vocabulary of the people connected with the history of his relations with other nations.
If we consider the vocabulary of the English language, all the words belonging to it should be regarded as English, with the exception of words that form its betray their foreign origin.
But such words in the English language is relatively small. The overwhelming weight of words in modern language is perceived as a word of English, whatever their actual origin. In fact, the native English words are known from the Old English period. They make up less than half of the English vocabulary. The rest of the language vocabulary - words of foreign origin, which came from the Latin, Greek, French, Scandinavian and other languages. Words of foreign origin are called borrowing.
Borrowing lexical items from one language to another - a phenomenon very ancient and has been known languages of the ancient world. For the fate of loanwords in their new language has a certain value the way in which they are entered in this language. There may be two such ways. First, an oral way, ie through live communication of two languages of the nations or adoption names artefacts. In this case, the word quickly fully assimilated into English. Second, the book or written way, ie borrowing from hearsay foreign texts in translation of these texts in their native language. In this case, the word longer retain their phonetic spelling and grammatical features.
By definition Neljubina LL borrowing - is "an introduction to the vocabulary of a foreign language words Fund" / 25, page 28 /. Borrowing - "appeal to the lexical fund other languages to express new concepts, further differentiation of existing and designations of previously unknown objects" / 1, pp. 78 /. Borrowing - the process by which the language appears in some foreign language and fixed element (primarily word or morpheme notional), as well as a foreign language element itself. Borrowing - an intrinsic part of the operation and the historical changes of language, one of the main sources of replenishment vocabulary. Borrowing vocabulary is a consequence of bringing people together on the basis of economic, political, scientific and cultural relations. So, in the Germanic languages has an extensive reservoir of ancient Latin borrowings related to various subject areas in the ancient Slavic languages borrowing - from German and Iranian languages. Borrowings of the oldest in the Russian language can be called a word of Iranian languages, for example, the word dog. Borrowings are direct or indirect. There are loan words with a very long and complicated history. In most cases, loan words fall into the language as a means of naming new things and the expression of previously unknown concepts. Loanwords may also be secondary names of known objects and phenomena. This occurs if the loanword is used for several other characteristics of the object, if it is generally accepted international term or if foreign words forcibly introduced into the language (when the military occupation).
Ambiguous words are usually imported in one of its meanings, and the scope of the word when borrowing is usually narrowed.
When borrowing meaning often shifts. It also happens that loanword returns to its new value back into the language from which it came. That is, apparently, the story word bistro coming in Russian language from French, where it arose after the War of 1812, when part of the Russian troops were in France - probably as a transfer replica "Quickly!"
It is generally considered that the occurrence of the word in the borrowing language, the following conditions:
· transfer of the foreign word phonetically and grammatically means the borrowing language;
· matching words with grammatical classes and categories of the borrowing language;
· phonetic and grammatical development of the foreign word;
· Activity derivational word;
· semantic development, namely, certainty values differentsializatsiya values and shades existed between the words in the language and borrowing;
· coined by regular speech.
However, some conditions are not required, for example, phonetic and grammatical word association and its derivational activity.
To become a borrowing that came from a foreign language word should gain a foothold in their new language, to be established in its vocabulary.
When borrowing adapts words to the phonological system of the borrowing language, ie missing it sounds are replaced by the closest. This adaptation, ie assimilation can occur gradually, sometimes foreign words for some time remain in their pronunciation sounds in a given language missing. In addition to phonetic loanword also exposed grammatical (morphological) assimilation. The nature of this assimilation depends on how the appearance of a borrowed word corresponds to the borrowing language morphology models.
You can set two main layers of English lexicon: the Anglo-Saxon and Romanesque. Romanesque layer in turn is from the Latin and French, which can be divided into its component parts, which differ from each other as to the time of their entry into the English language, and in their semantic features. In addition, the English vocabulary logical state even Greek, Scandinavian, Italian, Spanish layers, as well as some words borrowed from nearly 50 languages, including Russian. Consideration of the vocabulary of the English language shows that the predominant importance in the composition of the vocabulary of modern English language have lexical elements dating back to the ancient Indo-European language and an all-German community, as well as lexical elements, which are the result of the English word derivation. However, these sources are not the only source of wealth and the development of English vocabulary. Indeed, we know that in the vocabulary of modern English language includes lexical borrowings from other languages. Usually indicates that the most important of these sources were Latin, French and Scandinavian languages. Some of the words of these languages was so assimilated the English language that even penetrated to the main lexical core, but much more of them is beyond the latter.
1500 years of development English borrowed words from more than 50 languages since its carriers engage in a variety of contacts with speakers of other languages in Europe and on other continents. That explains such an abundance of foreign language elements in the vocabulary of the English language.
Words from other languages, which in linguistics is called the general term 'borrowing', generally fall into this language in two ways: as a result of the hybridization of languages and as a result of cultural, historical, socio-economic and other relations between nations. For example, the English language in the process of historical development was subjected to hybridization with the Scandinavian languages, with the Norman dialect of French. In addition, English language almost throughout its history had a greater or lesser degree of contact, and hence the linguistic interaction with spoken Latin, French, Spanish, Russian, German and other languages of the world.
As crossing languages and language interoperability as a result of cultural and economic ties between nations are not equal in terms of the results of the influence of one language into another. The number and nature of borrowed words depends largely on the specific historical conditions in which there is an influence of one language into another. For example, in the English words borrowed from Scandinavian languages as a result of crossing of these languages, much inferior to quantify the words borrowed from the French language as a result of cultural, political and economic relations of the two peoples. Words caught in English by crossing the English language with the French during the Norman Conquest, constitute the most significant layer of borrowing in modern English, namely about 60% of vocabulary.
The greatest number of loan words in the English language was seen in connection with the need to express new concepts arising in the process of social development in the communication process of the English people with other nations. However, borrowing among a significant number of words which appeared in English as early synonyms for existing words of Anglo-Saxon origin. Some of them have become part of the English language, while others are still being felt as alien elements.
Stability of borrowed words in the language depends on various reasons, the most important of which is the ability of the new words to adequately express a new concept or shade already known concepts. Borrowed words from other languages, if they are held in English, usually drawn by the phonetic and morphological laws borrowed language. English is more inclined to accept loan words in their original form, than to translate them using native elements, as is done in other languages. The vast majority of loan words in English, were converted to the corresponding models of English words. Often, however, foreign words, the so-called book-borrowing, while retain their external foreign appearance. This is manifested, in particular, in maintaining an unusual place for English accents, the word symbol, and even sometimes pronunciation. In rare cases, a language and preservation of unusual morphological take (for example, the plural form).
Finally, foreign words, assimilated into English, may alter its original meaning. This is quite natural, because these words begin to live a full life and ancestral words as well as the latter, in the process of improving the language specified in the lexical-semantic terms, overgrown additional values.
Borrowing in different languages different influences to enrich vocabulary. In some languages, they do not have such an effect, which could materially affect the vocabulary of the language. In other languages, borrowing in different historical epochs had such a significant influence on the vocabulary of a language that even minor words such as pronouns, prepositions, borrowed from other languages, supplanted native function words.
That is exactly the case with the English language. During the long history of its development, English took a considerable amount of foreign words, one way or another penetrated the dictionary. Among these are the words and functional words and derivational morphemes. Such a huge amount of loan words in the English language led some linguists argue that the English language has lost its identity, that he is a "hybrid language." English linguist A.Bo, for example, argues that the ability of English derivational noticeably beginning to fade due to the ease with which this language refers to other languages if necessary refer to the new concept.
However, despite the fact that a large number of English words is words borrowed from other languages, this language has not lost its identity: he was a Germanic language with all the characteristic features inherent throughout its development, and the changes that he suffered in connection with the borrowing only enriched its vocabulary.
The role of borrowings (borrowings, loan - words) in different languages varies and depends on the specific historical conditions of development of each language. In English, the percentage of loans is much higher than in many other languages, as for historical reasons it was very permeable. English more than any other language had to borrow foreign words in direct direct contact first in the Middle Ages by successive British Isles foreign invaders, and later in terms of trade expansion and colonization activity of Englishmen. It is estimated that the number of words in the English native dictionary is only about 30%.
General law of the uneven changes in the elements of the language applied to the problem of borrowing is formulated as follows: the most permeable are the most mobile elements of the language included in the vocabulary of a language, less permeable - to defend the fund elements, and almost not exposed to foreign influences grammatical structure of the language.
Or that the influence of one language to another is always historical reasons: wars, conquests, travel, trade, etc. lead to more or less close interaction of different languages. The intensity of the flow of new loan words in different periods are different. Depending on the specific historical conditions, it increases and decreases. Degree of influence of one language to another while largely dependent on the language factor, namely the degree of closeness of interacting languages, ie on whether they are closely related or not.
Misconceptions prevailing in linguistics about the problem of borrowing is not limited to exaggerate their role in the development of language. The approach to the topic was one-sided and formal. Researchers were interested primarily sources and dates of borrowing and, at best, historical causes and conditions of borrowing.
While the significance of these data can not be limited. Now, scientists are interested, not only how and why it loanword, but as it became assimilated into the language as obeyed its grammar and phonetic rules of how to change its value, and the changes caused his appearance in the vocabulary of accepting his tongue.
The need for such an approach to borrowing some Russian scholars have pointed out long ago. In particular, the largest Russian linguist XIX century by AA Potebnya believed that need not ask that borrowed from anyone, and it is necessary to ask what that was created as a result of, the institution of a push by borrowing words from other people. But this view was not widespread at the time and found no response.
AA Potebnya drew attention to the creative element in the process of borrowing. "Borrow, - he said - then take in order to be able to contribute to the treasury of human culture more than it receives." Such an approach to the question of borrowing reveals regularities that govern the development of vocabulary, explain the phenomena occurring in it and identify their causes, to reveal the connection between the history of individual words, the history of language and history of the people.
Due to the systemic nature of language in general and vocabulary in particular, no new entrant vocabulary borrowed words can not go by without affecting the rest of the vocabulary. Loanword usually assumes one or more values ??semantically closest to his words, had previously existed in the language. Thus there is a rearrangement in their semantic structure, ie some minor importance may be the central and vice versa. May also occur, and often there is a replacement of the first words close in meaning coincide with a new word. This happens because the long coexistence in the language of absolute or almost absolute synonyms impossible and always wound up or disengagement of their values, or the displacement of the first unnecessary words.
General Act on the systemic effects of language as applied to the problem of debt can therefore be formulated as follows: any change in the vocabulary of a foreign language penetration borrowing entails semantic or stylistic changes to the existing language in words and shifts in the synonymous groups.
1.3 CLASSIFICATION OF BORROWING
Available in the vocabulary of the borrowed words can be classified as follows: 1) Source of borrowing; 2) over what aspect of the word is borrowed; 3) according to the degree of assimilation.
1) According to the source, and the era of borrowing in the vocabulary of the English language are distinguished:
Table 1. Etymological dictionary structure Eng. language
Local (your) element
1. Indo-European element
2. German element
3. English element
1. Celtic (V - VI century AD.)
Group I - I in. BC
Group II - VII century. BC
Group III - era
(VIII - XI century AD.)
a) Norman borrowing
(XI - XIII century AD.)
b) Parisian borrowing
5. Greek (Revival)
6. Italian (Revival
and later Renaissance)
7. Spanish (and Rebirth
and certain other groups
2) By the way, what aspect of the word is new to the host language , borrowing divided into: phonetic or transcription , when the overall sound is set for the borrowing language new, ie it is borrowing lexical unit that maintains its shape sound (sometimes somewhat modified in accordance with the phonetic features of the language in which the word is borrowed) tracings- Translation - Loans (ie borrowing by literal translation, usually in parts, foreign words or phrases that accurately reproduce its facilities with the host language preservation of the morphological structure and motivation); semantic borrowing and word-building elements .
Under the semantic borrowing meant borrowing a new value, often portable, to an existing word in the language. Words pioneer and brigade existed in the English language and to the penetration of Sovietisms, but the values ??of ' a member of the Communist children's organization 'and' labor collective 'they got under the influence of Russian post-October period.
As for the Russian language, the pre-October period were borrowed mainly words connected with the peculiarities of Russian nature and life, with items of trade Россией: sable ' соболь '; astrakhan ' каракуль '; sterlet ' стерлядь '; steppe ' степь '; verst ' верста '; izba ' изба ' etc. In English, many Sovietisms. Among them are phonetic borrowing, where a new concept borrowed and new sound complex: Soviet, Sputnik, bolshevik, kolkhoz, activist. (When comparing the values ??of a borrowed word to that which it had in the language, it saves only a part of their values, often one and, moreover, is not the primary and derivative, and often becomes a term. striking example is borrowed from Russian sputnik and Soviet. )
Tracing paper (from the French. calque 'copy') - a unit created by borrowing structure element of a foreign language (words or phrases) with the replacement of its material embodiment means mother tongue; creation process called tracing paper tracings.
Thus tracing - a way of drawing in which the borrowed associative value and structural model of the word or phrase. When tracing the components of the borrowed words or phrases translated separately and connected to the sample of foreign words or phrases. As a result of tracing are tracing paper, ie speech and expression, modeled on the foreign word or phrase.
Depending on the structure of any language element is copied, tracing paper are divided into word-formation, phraseological and semantic. When word-formative tracings reproduced the morphological structure of words. Phraseological tracings represent word translation of idiomatic phrases. semantic calque called giving way native language was absent from his earlier figurative meaning - modeled on a word of another language .. As with other types of borrowing, trace values ??are not always fixed in the language. Derivational tracing usually simultaneously also semantic, as created by word translation pomorfemnogo copies by the word-source semantic transfer. Tracing thus performs a very important function of language, acting as a conduit of cultural influence. Indeed, tracing, as well as any borrowing, is in some sense the weakness of evidence, ie insufficient funds own language - speaking or unwillingness to make the effort to find these funds; in this sense nekotorm path of least resistance. In particular, tracing - the first sign of poor translation and general lack of proficiency. Conversely, a good knowledge of the language requires the ability to express "idiomatic", ie knowledge of a foreign language phrases ready, Avoids tracing (ie word translation) designs native language. Semantic tracing can not always be distinguished from the similar but independent semantic development, as there are semantic shifts, which are regular and perhaps even universal. Examined.Wordbilding tracings are inaccurate: the translation of one morpheme can be transmitted approximate equivalent. Sometimes trace words bear the imprint of his "artificial" origin.
So, in this case tracing - the literal translation of the elements of Russian words and expressions to the conservation of morphological structure: house of rest ' holiday home '. To create a word in the English language, tracing paper is borrowed from another language only the principle of the implementation of this concept, ie only etymological structure corresponding foreign word, the same word formation material are purely English or foreign language morpheme organically included in the English vocabulary. For example, Five - year - plan - detailed tracing Russian sustainable denominative combination ' five-year plan 'or' five-year plan '. Tracing hearsay phenomenon is not particularly frequent; more often when you pass a value of foreign language words used or the selection of an existing approximately exact verbal equivalent or explanatory translation. For example, the Russian ' individual farmer 'is transmitted through explaining translation Individual Peasant , ' voluntary Sunday '- Voluntary Sunday time . tracings and transcription as a means of borrowing should be distinguished from methods of the same name translation. Not differing in its mechanism, they differ in their outcomes: the translation is no increase in the dictionary, whereas borrowing in language there are new lexical units.
3) interesting life loanwords in their language borrowed. Many of the borrowings under the influence of the system in which they entered, undergo significant phonetic, grammatical and even semantic changes, adapting, so to phonetic, grammatical, semantic and graphic laws of the host language, ie assimilate.
Degree of assimilation can be very different and depends because how long was borrowing, whether it was oral or through the book how common words and so on. Degree of assimilation depends on the historical conditions for the development of each individual word, the time of borrowing, the nature of borrowing, communicative significance of words and stuff.
According to the degree of assimilation of borrowings can be divided into:
a) fully assimilated , ie all relevant morphological, phonetic and orthographic norms borrowed language and perceived as speaking English, not foreign words;
b) partially assimilated , ie remaining in its foreign pronunciation, spelling or grammatical forms;
c) partially assimilated and denoting concepts associated with other countries and have no English equivalent . For example, from the Russian Steppe, Rouble, verst .
The process of assimilation can be so profound that foreign origin of such words does not feel native English speakers and is found only through etymological analysis. This is particularly true, for example, the Scandinavian and early Latin borrowings type get 'get', skill 'skill', sky 'sky', skirt 'skirt', skin 'skin', they 'they', street 'street', etc. Unlike fully assimilated and learned borrowings partially assimilated foreign-language units retain traces of their foreign origin as phonetic, grammatical and semantic features, for example, Taiga , Tundra , Rouble , knout and other borrowings of the Russian language, denoting the British alien realities and concepts. In order to adequately describe them in the dictionaries of the English language is widely used by lexicographers encyclopedic information, reports on the places of distribution, forms of existence, the methods of application, etc. designated objects and phenomena. Thus, in interpreting the words Taiga , Tundra , along with an indication of the generic characteristics and distinctive features, allowing to see the specifics of the data and the difference compared to the realities of the most intimate and known to English speakers realities, provides guidance climatic zone, the geographical area: Taiga - swampy coniferous forest of Siberia, beginning where the Tundra ends; Tundra - treeless Plain Characteristic of arctic and subarctic regions. Description borrowed into English names currency type rouble also suggests indication as to what is the monetary unit has a definite place in the general system of monetary units, and the country in which it is in circulation: Rouble - See money table: 100 kopecks, Russia.
Since the process of assimilation of foreign language elements starts with introducing them to the language translators, it is appropriate to say a few words about the technology transfer specifically foreign names. When translating words and expressions with unknown associative value, as well as the translation of names realities can be applied transcription, tracing and explanatory translation (transfer value of the foreign word or phrase means native language without saving motivations and forms). When tracing and transcription must sometimes resort to comments. Can also be applied technique is a variation of an explanatory translation and tracing - replacing associative values. However, this does not preclude the need to comment. Abuse of transcription and translation methods as tracings clog language. When strange motivation transcription and tracing without comments are not allowed as a translation in the strict sense, in this case no.
1.4 INTEREST IN RUSSIAN LANGUAGE
In the long - calm and turbulent - life there is communication between related and unrelated peoples, and languages - related and unrelated - like a second Rodney stretch strings interferences and interchange. There are loan words, foreign language to borrow. But gradually assimilate these words and how to dissolve in the new language environment, and yet loanword very long, and sometimes his whole life bears the imprint of former existence, the imprint in thinking, feelings, perceptions of other people.
Understand the historical ties of different countries and peoples in the nature of these links help loanwords. They turn into a kind of milestones, milestones civilization, sociology, and, of course, a milestone for communication of different nations.
Words penetrating into other languages - is not just traces of interlingual contacts, but it's pretty much traces of communication people, and documenting the fact of communication, and often the very nature of communication. How to meet different people? Maintained friendships or enmity? How were the people who gave their word to another language?
Words depicting ancient contacts and save in a foreign language, albeit in a modified form already, can tell a lot of stories of peoples encountered on its historical path.
In the period of 1812-1814 Europe met Russian army, including the Russian Cossacks, as the army - a liberator from the Napoleonic invasion. The actions of Napoleon - French Emperor already - progressive motives were in the past. At this time, the future Decembrist Fyodor Glinka made a very important point in his "Letters of a Russian officer": "It is indisputable that the glory of the people of the price and gives shine his language." F. Glinka but not emphasized a very important role at the time of the Russian army, the army - the liberator of the European peoples. When Tsarist Russia changed that high role to the role of gendarme of Europe (1815-1831), the interest in Russia, Russian culture, Russian language began to fade. But the humanistic foundations of Russian culture, Russian literature and felt during the reign of the conservative forces in Russia. That's why this seems a significant problem of the influence of Russian literature on world literature and on certain literary trends in different countries. Thanks to translations (at different times and in different countries to a greater or lesser extent, "exact") knowledge of Russian literature "overtakes" the Russian language. A complex interaction of cultures in which the language of Russian literary source appeared as a reflection of the target language. World of ideas and images of Russian literature suffered the inevitable losses in the interpretation of a foreign language and at the same time, entering into another linguistic form, a foreign language is enriched with new concepts, ideas, images. For example, through the translation of novel by the great Russian writer Turgenev's "Fathers and Sons" in the English word penetrated nihilist ' nihilist '.
In the depths of Russian society was formed progressive political thought: the Decembrists raznochintsi Democrats, Populists, the Bolsheviks. Lays the foundation for a new socialist society, with whom were born new concepts and new names. Great October Socialist Revolution led to a stream of new political, consumer terminology for which there was no equivalent in any language. Her borrowed, conceptualized, evaluated all nations.
In 1922, England was held kinda questioning among major libraries. Objective of this questionnaire was to investigate the question of the penetration of Russian literature and Russian language in England as an indicator of Russian cultural influence. To this end, questionnaires were sent to the largest public libraries in London, Birmingham, Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester. More than a third of those surveyed libraries (in the twelfth) Russian books out completely; of the remaining twenty-one - there were only eleven textbooks and dictionaries of the Russian language. Seven libraries was not more than fifteen Russian books, three - there were a few more than fifteen. Single, relatively rich Russian books library was London Public Library (London Library), but in other (except for the British Museum) Russian books collected by the time there was little, and their selection was very casual.
The Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 - sacred, just war against fascism - sparked a new wave of interest in Russia - Soviet Union and the Russian language, Russian and Soviet politics, culture, science, technology.
Considerable interest in the study of Russian language showed up in England during the First World War. It then began to teach at many private schools. Thereafter, the number of schools with Russian language has dropped dramatically - in 1939 there were only 20. Universities in russistic much earlier made steady, albeit modest position. Since 1965, the Russian language teaching in the UK has received widespread. Sharply increased interest in Russian language and reassessment of views on the role of the Russian language in schools in European countries while associated with the success of the Russian people in space exploration. According to one of the Danish teachers: "That which could not even make a brilliant Russian literature, did the Soviet satellites and Gagarin's flight." When released into orbit the first artificial satellite, launched in 1957, have dramatically increased the interest in Russian language, Russian science and technology. However, despite this, we know that students who study Russian language in schools, much less than learning French or German, although the number of schools teaching russkoo language in 1967, there were about 600. In 1978, 28,000 people studied Russian 40 universities and 802 schools in England. And in the United States in 1993, studied Russian language about 44,000 students. Figure is small compared to the number of students who engaged in Spanish (533,000), French (272 000) and German (133,000) languages.
In September 1960, in England, a commission was established under the chairmanship of Prof.. N. Annan. Task of the commission was to "explore the possibility of expanding the teaching of the Russian language in schools and other educational institutions of the United Kingdom and do on these issues specific recommendations" (Jakobson H. M. Why Study English? AATSEEL Publication, University of Arisona, Tueson, 1966, p. 3 -4). The Commission presented an extensive report, which recommended to bring the teaching of the Russian language to the level of German. Solving this problem seen Annan Commission to the French language and the Latin "made room", losing in the school curriculum required number of hours Russian language. The report considered that 25,000 students learning Russian yazykeu need 1,500 teachers and offered annually prepare 120 teachers of the Russian language. In 1960-1961 in England, there were about 300 teachers of the Russian language. The main centers of Russian language study in England at that time were Oxford, Cambridge, Glasgow, Edinburgh, Manchester, Liverpool, Nottingham, London, Birmingham, Leeds. It should be noted independent school Slavic and Oriental Studies, University of London and Holborn College in London, is actively engaged in the development of technical means of teaching foreign languages, including Russian.
In the scientific and advocacy book "Why learn Russian?", Released in the U.S. in 1966, noted that "the practical applicability of the Russian language includes a wide range of career opportunities. Knowing it - a necessary tool for many posts in the federal government, private business, librarianship, research institutions involved in both public and natural sciences, as well as, increasingly, in the field of mass communication. And of course, a recognized need for qualified teachers ... In the immediate professional value of the Russian language should not forget that the mastery of them highly enriched, for this huge purely cultural acquisition. " Increasingly in the international public opinion perpetuate the idea of beauty, wealth, expressiveness, the sonority of the Russian language.
Reportedly Presses, in 1970 the Russian language has become one of the working languages of the International Basketball Federation, the International Federation of Sports Medicine (FIMS) and other organizations. Notable players while Robert Fischer (USA) and Bent Larsen (Denmark) well owned Russian language, recognizing the leading position of the Soviet chess school. American astronauts studied Russian language, preparing for space flight, in which participated along with them Soviet cosmonauts.
Russian language, according to the great Russian poet Pushkin, "so flexible and powerful in its speed and means so coenobitic mimic and in its relations to foreign languages," and he has an impact on other languages. In watching the Pushkin Russian Language coenobite allocated, ie its ability to links to networking and mutual enrichment. "Alien language does not extend his sword and fire, but its own abundance and excellence." And then Pushkin drew attention to the influence of the language requirement: advanced literature, trade legislation. Consequently, the international role of language determine ideology, culture, the economy, which has the nation. Life is defined by the words of the affairs of the people (Full Pushkin. Cit. Op.: 10 tons - Moscow, Leningrad, 1949, v. 7, p. 199)....
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