Valte-based self-regulation as a mechanism for development of social justice in pedagogical interaction
Consideration of the results of theoretical study of teacher's self-regulation value as a psychological mechanism for the development of social justice. Analysis of the process of manifestation and development of the personal formation of social justice.
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Valte-based self-regulation as a mechanism for development of social justice in pedagogical interaction
Value-based self-regulation as a mechanism for development of social justice in pedagogical interaction / L. V. Klochek // Problems of Modern Psychology : Collection of research papers of Kamianets-Podilskyi National Ivan Ohiienko University, G. S. Kostiuk Institute of Psychology of the National Academy of Educational Sciences of Ukraine / scientific editing by S. D. Maksymenko, L. A. Onufriieva. - Issue 41. - Kamianets-Podilskyi : Aksioma, 2018. - Р 115-127.
L. V. Klochek. Value-based self-regulation as a mechanism for development of social justice in pedagogical interaction. The article presents the results of the theoretical and empirical study of a teacher's value-based self-regulation as a mechanism for development of social justice in pedagogical interaction. Psychological mechanisms are defined as methods of qualitative transformations of the teacher's personality that affect the structure of his axiological sphere, activate the process of appearance and development of the personal formation of social justice. Value-based selfregulation acts as a psychological mechanism, which, in the conditions of pedagogical activity, launches the process of regulation of the actions by a teacher's personality in relation to each student in accordance with generally accepted norms of justice in the educational environment. It is evidenced that the teacher's regulation of his actions takes place not only taking into account the external attributes of pedagogical activities.
According to them, a teacher adjusts the internal manifestations of his personality, critically evaluates his qualities and actions, correlates them with socially recognized values and norms, makes qualitative transformations in his axiological sphere. The empirical study of the mechanism of value-based self-regulation among teachers showed that it is developed to a greater extent among experienced teachers having a pedagogical experience of 21 years and above. This is manifested in the awareness of their own dominant values, among which social justice takes the lead and asserts the teacher in the belief to act justly in the interaction with students. In contrast, among young teachers whose professional experience does not exceed 5 years, the mechanism of social justice is developed the least, due to the lack of professional experience and it is displayed in underdeveloped skills of regulation of their manifestations in interaction with students in accordance with social and professional values.
The formulation of the research problem. The processes that take place in the modern world determine topicality of the study of social justice problem in pedagogical interaction: when an average person defends his dignity, achieving deserved reward and social recognition for the results of his activities. School is a kind of a society model, where every student hopes for a fair decision of the teacher regarding the distribution of rewards and punishments for the accomplished educational tasks or behavior. Justified expectations of students are ensured by the availability of social justice quality (value) in the teacher's personality structure. The process of achieving understanding between a teacher and students on this basis is caused by the action of psychological mechanisms for social justice development in pedagogical interaction. According to our scientific concept, such mechanisms are values-based reflection, social identification and values-based self-regulation. They influence the development of the axiological sphere of teacher's personality, activate the process of his understanding the morality of his actions, contribute to the formation of a value-based treatment of each student, and create conditions for establishment of psychological equality in pedagogical interaction.
Analysis of recent research and publications. There were different interpretations of mechanisms in psychological science. They were explained as ways leading to new formations and changes occurrence in the individual's personality system and qualitative changes in his relations with the surrounding world (L. I. Antsyferova). According to other scientific approaches, psychological mechanisms have an impact on correlation and development of components of psychological system structure (M. Y. Boryshevskyi). Psychological mechanisms are also interpreted as instruments through which transformations occur in the human psyche and its activities are regulated (S. D. Maksymenko); and instruments for occurrence of emotional experience by the personality of the demands of society and reflection on them, which are objectified in the form of argumentation and embodied in the model of behavior (I. D. Bekh).
Our scientific position is close to the explanation of psychological mechanisms by I. S. Bulakh as ways of personality transformations, fixed in his psychological structure, the action result of which is the appearance of personal new formations, the achievement of a certain level of structural components organization, changes in the peculiarities of their functioning . We tend to identify psychological mechanisms as ways of qualitative transformations of a teacher's personality, affecting the structure of his axiological sphere, activating the process of appearance and development of the personal formation of social justice. It is objectified in socially just actions towards students during pedagogical interaction.
Social and professional requirement of society for a teacher to be just becomes an internal regulator of his pedagogical actions by launching psychological mechanisms of social justice in pedagogical interaction, among which teacher's value-based self-regulation plays a special role. We set the goal to explore the features of value self-regulation as a psychological mechanism for the development of moral quality of the teacher-social justice personality.
Presentation of the main research material. The problem of individual's self-regulation is interdisciplinary and has been at the center of attention of scholars, whose researches were carried out with due consideration of human mental nature peculiarities. Thus, I. M. Siechenov initiated the development of scientific concepts regarding the regulatory nature of the mental processes course in accordance with changing external conditions of existence . I. P. Pavlov emphasized that during the life course a human acts as a self-regulating system: at biological and social levels it is able to correct, improve and, if necessary, recover itself. The scholar emphasized that self-regulation is a continuous process, the course of which is accompanied by a combination of energetic, dynamic, rational aspects of human life .
M. V. Hryniova noted that self-regulation covers all spheres of human existence, and in the context of mastering a certain activity and its implementation self-regulation becomes of special significance. The scholar explained the content of this phenomenon in terms of the individual's determination of the activity purpose; analysis of significant conditions model; creation of the appropriate actions plan and outlining the ways of achieving the desired result .
In his study, O. O. Konopkin demonstrated that self-regulation, as an integral system of functional units, determines the activity efficiency. The low level of development of a certain system component or its lack of formation testifies to deficiencies in the individual's self-regulation and negatively affects the activity efficiency. The converse is also true, sufficient level of development and the formation of all self-regulation components contributes to the effective performance of any activity and adaptation to its conditions by the individual .
S. L. Rubinshtein at his time proved that an individual was aware of not only what was happening around him, but also of himself and his actions. As a subject, he took part in results of activity and cultural development of society, contributed to the latter, regulated his own actions, and bore responsibility for it. According to the views of the researcher, self-regulation is manifestations of the individual's inner side brought into compliance with external events, that are manifested in attitudes towards activity, other people, himself, and the world as a whole .
M. Y. Boryshevskyi explained such a feature as an ability for self-activity. The scholar distinguished manifestations of individual's self-regulation, namely, the critical evaluation and control of his behavior; arbitrary directing of his actions with pre-performed action taking into account their possible consequences for other people and for himself; a conscious motive to keep the norms of morality, behavior, and building of relationships with other people in society. The individual's ability to self-regulation was determined by the scientist as a necessary condition for his socially responsible behavior. It is characteristic of an individual who can build his relationships with the outside world on a humanistic basis, make positive changes in it, and realize his life mission. Moreover, M. Y. Bo- ryshevskyi emphasized the ability of the individual to formulate new goals on his own, determine the means of their achievement, influence the external conditions, change the internal believes regarding them, and update the leading motives of activity .
I. D. Bekh put focus primarily on the motives of a mature person to solve life-purpose problems. Individual directs his activity to building or revision of the hierarchy of personal values and senses. He regulates his actions according to them, as meaningful rational formations determine the individual's activity orientation and external manifestations. The scientist considered the human's axiological system as a complex regulator of his life. Personal values serve as a kind of a template for the individual to assess a permissible degree of observance of norms in behavior and activities. The scholar used the term «normative value-based regulation», which emphasized the regulatory function of a certain normative value for a person .
By carrying out value-based self-regulation, the individual enters into an internal dialogue with himself, the content of which is determined by previous dialogical relationships with the outside world. According to the philosophical concept of M. M. Bakhtin, individual should accept universal human values, in view of them to show his subjectivity in appealing to other individual, influencing both the other individual and his own development . The dialogic nature of internal and external communication creates conditions for mature forms of self-regulation , which are manifested, as noted by researcher T. V. Kyrychenko, in the mature emotional reactions of the subject and his ability to social and psychological adaptation in changing conditions .
Such conditions are typical for teacher's activity when he is faced with difficult tasks of finding constructive solution to pedagogical situations, where one needs to make a fair assessment of students' academic achievements or behavior. Due to the profession and socio-psychological maturity, a teacher exercises self-regulation, which basically relies on the values self-reflected in the process of internal dialogue, among which the value of social justice holds a prominent place. According to M. V. Hryniova, a teacher should be ready to not only solve the pedagogical situation, but also have the mechanisms of self-regulation, be able to predict its origin and specificity, distinguish his own qualities that will allow influencing the circumstances, show creative activity, in order to quickly identify the problem and find the proper solution .
T. Y. Titova attributed a similar feature of orientation in current situations to the individual with flexible self-regulation style, which is manifested in well-developed ability to plasticity and modeling. He has a developed value-semantic sphere; tends to correlate his personal qualities, values, priorities with the peculiarities of other people or certain circumstances. Such personality can be characterized as tolerant to a situation of uncertainty, able to accept and implement decisions in situations where it is necessary to make a responsible choice. During this process, the person understands the significance of other people's actions, correlates them with their own actions, qualifies their consequences .
The above mentioned results of theoretical research have prompted us to present our own interpretation of the nature and the effect of the mechanism of value-based self-regulation of social justice in pedagogical interaction. Self-regulation is the mechanism that trigers the process of teacher's comprehending of the purpose of his pedagogical activity in the part of the evaluation of students' academic achievements and their behavioral manifestations; the conditions under which this process takes place; its expected result. The well-developed self-regulation of the teacher ensures the implementation of the above-mentioned components of his activity quali-tatively and productively, which is manifested in the fair decisions and actions of the teacher in relation to each student and the absence of misunderstandings in their interaction during the discussion of the grades received. It is the constructive external dialogue, the tearcher's arguments that neutralize the possibility of students' doubts regarding the teacher's social justice.
Due to value-based self-regulation, the teacher perceives the situation of interaction with the student and is well-oriented in it, but in the process of conducting internal dialogue he becomes able to comprehend the processes associated with designating the way of award, punishment or encouragement of the student deeper; to take a responsible pedagogical decision, which is realized in socially just actions. By regulating his own motives to act justly towards each student, the teacher falls back upon a moral and value-based revision of his previous and potential actions in interaction with students.
The empirical study of the mechanism of value-based selfregulation was carried out using the «Development of individual's value-based self-regulation» methodology (by M. Hrant, modif. by V. Voloshyna) [5, p. 295], according to which, it was necessary to choose from the pairs of statements proposed to the study subjects such ones that complied with their beliefs. The choices reflected the establishment of value-based orientations or values in the teacher's axiological consciousness that govern his behavior. Establishment of dominant values at the utmost activates the mechanism of value- based self-regulation and encourages the teacher's personality to think over situations of interaction with students, consciously realize the desired situations; to analyze and control his own emotions in situations that require just decisions; to control his own actions, which are interpreted by students as just or unjust.
305 teachers of general educational institutions were involved in the experimental work. Among them there are teachers, having less than 5 years of pedagogical experience; teachers having from 6 to 20 years of pedagogical experience; teachers having more than 21 years of pedagogical experience. The obtained empirical data are presented below in Table 1.
social justice psychological
Table 1. Quantitative indicators of the teachers'development of value-based self-regulation mechanism (n = 305)
The empirical study of the mechanism of value-based self-regulation among teachers has shown that the high level of development of value-based self-regulation is characteristic for 17,3% of teachers whose pedagogical experience does not exceed 5 years, 18,3% is characteristic for teachers with experience from 6 to 20 years, 14,2% - for teachers with an experience of 21 years and above.
Such subjects of the study are clearly set to be as objective and humane regarding their students as possible. They are far from worries about the problem of motives conflict - the motives of moral behavior in changing conditions of school society and the motives of the standard behavior of the dominant teacher. Without hesitation, the teachers of this level make a choice in favor of moral motivation, which stipulates the pedagogical goal to be just and treat students with value perspective. Having a high level of value-based self-regulation, teachers in advance analyse a plan for the goal realization, keep its implementation under their own control. It is clear from the presented results that the percentage of teachers having the highest level is the lowest in the category of experienced teachers who have worked at school for over 21 years, compared to teachers whose pedagogical experience is less. In our opinion, this indicates that with the acquisition of professional experience, internal regulation is somewhat diminished, and the motives and senses are revised to a lesser extent. There is a stable hierarchy of values, and the per-sonality of an experienced teacher does not review their priority in certain circumstances. If upon criterion of high level the quantitative indicators of the given category of teachers were the lowest, the highest indicators are found upon criterion of middle level.
42,5% of teachers with professional experience of 21 years and above, 28,8% of subjects of the study with a pedagogical experience of between 6 and 20 years old, 19,8% of teachers with experience of up to 5 years have a middle level of value-based self-regulation. Its main characteristics are the weakening of the motives conflicts. With the purpose of pedagogical activity of a teacher to be humane and just in relation to students, the urgency of the problem to choose the moral motives decreases. There is a plan for achieving the goal and outline of the actions sequence, but the subjects of the study of this level do not clearly adhere to it, with the consideration of new circumstances. Therefore, the final result is not always consistent with the previously outlined. The percentage of sample groups for this level varies significantly. We are witnessing a decline in the tendency towards the manifestation of the medium level of value- based self-regulation among the teachers, whose pedagogical experience does not exceed 5 years. This happens due to an increase in the number of subjects of the study in the same category, who have a low level of value-based self-regulation.
As we can see from the Table, 53,1% of teachers with pedagogical experience of less than 5 years, 50,0% of teachers, with pedagogical experience between 6 and 20 years and 40,8% of teachers with experience of over 21 years, have a low level of value-based self-regulation. If among teachers with pedagogical experience of over 21 years quantitative indicators of medium and low levels do not differ significantly, then among teachers of the other two categories they differ in the direction of increasing the number of subjects of the study with low level. Its presence means that the mechanism of value-based regulation is not sufficiently developed. Participants of the experiment tend to rely on a stable system of values and not to change the priority of particular values, not to review motives and senses. Therefore, the internal struggle practically is not carried out, aimed at choice of moral ones in the struggle of motives. The fact of the presence of low and very low levels of value-based self-regulation in the majority of the subjects, whose pedagogical experience is less than 5 years (62,9%) and participants of the experiment whose pedagogical experience is between 6 and 20 years (52,9% ) is alarming. The teachers of these levels perform their actions with consideration of situation that arises in interaction with the students and do not activate their axiologacial sphere concerning the priority of motives of just behavior. Instead, this feature is characteristic of 43,3% of teachers with experience of 21 years. Although such a percentage is significant, however, we can note the higher development degree of value-based self-regulation among teachers in this category compared to the results of their junior colleagues.
The results of empirical research have shown that to a great extent the mechanism of value-based self-regulation is developed among experienced teachers having a pedagogical experience of 21 years. The least developed psychological mechanisms of value-based self-regulation of social justice in pedagogical interaction among young teachers whose professional experience does not exceed 5 years, that is explained by the lack of professional experience and less developed skills to regulate their activities and behavior in accordance with social and professional values.
social justice psychological
As we can see, due to the mechanism of value- based self-regulation, the process of regulating by the teacher's personality of the behavior in accordance with the valuable senses that are part of its semantic sphere is started. The value of social justice, which acquires personal and professional significance for a teacher, becomes the sense and motive for him in his professional activity. Interacting with students, the teacher is guided by priority values, among which social justice takes place. He coordinates his actions in accordance with its meanings content: he treats the personality of each student with value orientation and impartially, establishes dialogical relations with them and fixes his contribution to the development of students, determines the direction of his professional, personal, moral self-improvement.
Consequently, the psychological mechanism of value self-regulation in the conditions of pedagogical activity launches the process of regulating the personality of their actions towards the students in accordance with the humane values and meanings.
This happens with regard to the situation of pedagogical interaction, while the teacher conducts an external dialogue with students. At the same time, he carries out internal work aimed at correcting his qualities and actions that correlate with the value of social justice; carries out qualitative transformations in his axiological sphere.
It has been empirically discovered that to a greater extent the mechanism of value-based self-regulation is developed by experienced teachers having a pedagogical experience of 21 years. This is manifested in their awareness of their own dominant values, among which social justice takes the leading position and asserts the teacher in belief of the necessity to always act justly in interaction with each student without exclusion.
Among young teachers whose professional experience does not exceed 5 years, the mechanism of social justice is developed the weakest, that can be explained by insignificant professional experience and is manifested in underdeveloped skills to regulate their manifestations in interaction with students.
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