Patterns of interaction between NGOs working with disabled people and state authorities in the context of austerity policy: case study of Russia and Finland
Approaches to study relations between state authorities and non-governmental organizations. Finnish and russian case: dynamics of interaction between NGO and state. Changes in funding. Patterns of interaction between state and NGOs in Russia and Finland.
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ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ
«САНКТ-ПЕТЕРБУРГСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»
Бугровский Александр Игоревич
Bugrovskii Aleksandr Igorevich
Способы взаимодействия между НКО работающими с инвалидами и государственными властями в контексте политики сокращения социальных расходов: кейс стади исследование России и Финляндии
(Patterns of interaction between NGOs working with disabled people and state authorities in the context of austerity policy: case study of Russia and Finland)
на соискание степени магистра
по основной образовательной программе высшего образования
по направлению 390401 «Социология»,
профиль «Европейские общества» / MA «Studies in European Societies»
TABLE OF CONTENTS
state nongovernmental funding finland
Table of contents
Chapter 1. Theoretical approaches to study relations between state authorities and non-governmental organizations
1.1 Theoretical frames of investigation the state-NGOs' relations during marketization
1.2 De-commodification phenomenon as basis for the NGO-state relations
1.3 The loosing of the state sovereignty as a key feature for study the recent tendencies
1.4 The social capital theory as additional source of conceptualization
1.5 The New Public Management theory as interpretation of austerity policy phenomenon
1.6 The key interpretations of social capital as a ground for the comparative case-study
Chapter 2. Finnish case: dynamics of interaction between NGO and state
2.1 Organizational features of Finish case: legal status, structure and types of activities
2.2 History of organization: way from national association toward social service provider
2.3 Current mission, values, goals and strategy: shift to commercialization
2.4 Changes in funding: the key points for financial stability
2.5 Institutional framework of interaction with the state: civic engagement and shared responsibilities for social affairs
2.6 Effect of the austerity context in the era of neoliberalism
Chapter 3. Russian case: dynamics of interaction between NGO and state
3.1 Organizational features of Russian case: legal status, structure and types of activities
3.2 History of organization: from grass-root towards resource center
3.3 Current mission, values and strategy: shift to the professionalization of charitable activities
3.4 Changes in funding: the key points of searching a financial stability
3.5 Institutional framework of interaction with the state: governmental corporatism
3.6 Effect of the austerity context in the era of neoliberalism
Chapter 4. Patterns of interaction between state and NGOs in Russia and Finland
4.1 Egalitarian pattern of interaction in Finnish case: features and practices
4.2 Paternalistic pattern of interaction in Russian case: features and practices
The core idea of my interdisciplinary research presented by relations of two actors: the state authorities defined as public organizations responsible for governing the state and its territories and the non-governmental organizations (NGOs-see glossary) defined as civil society organzations independent from the state governance and commercial priorities. Both of them are implementing vivid functions in the provision of social benefits and shape the common picture of the welfare state. During the second half of the twentieth century, some investigations even were emphasing the participation of the non-governmental intiatives in the relations with the state actors as one of the principles of consolidation of democracy in overall Шмиттер Ф. (1996) Размышления о гражданском обществе и консолидации демократии // «Полис» («Политические исследования»). №5. C.18 https://www.civisbook.ru/files/File/Shmitter_1996_5.pdf. According to Michael Gorny, the partnerships between civil society, the private sector and the state are perceived as the most effective methods for solving complex of social, cultural and economic problems Горный М.Б. (2011) Взаимодействие некоммерческих организаций и органов власти: сравнительный анализ законодательства // ЖИСП. №2 https://jsps.hse.ru/article/view/3522/3104.
However, Russian realities show that the interests of the formal state institutions and the representatives of civil society are contradicting to each other. For example, there is a contradiction of interests between the state authorities responsible for social protection and care and NGOs working with disabled people regarding the usage of the state resources for provision of all required social services for disabled groups of people in recent time.
My study steps from the new phenomenon associated with the change in the state-NGOs' relations that has kindled scientific interest and triggered heated discussions reflecting different expectations all over the world today. I mean such phenomena as the reformation of welfare policy, especially the decrease of social obligations and delegation part of the state service towards NGOs. Exactly, this phenomenon of the state-NGO's relations draws my attention to the problem of patterns of interactions between the state and NGOs working with disabled people in time associated with the austerity policy. In my opinion, it's possible to use the austerity policy as a term for description processes related to commercialization, indivilduiazation and the specific trend of minimization of government involvement in solving social issues. These phenomena are considered by many scholars arguing about the world reformation into the new forms of civil society Evers Adalbert, Annette Zimmer (2010) Third Sector Organizations Facing Turbulent Environments
Sports, Culture and Social Services in Five European Countries. Nomos, Baden-Baden.
The features of the state and NGOs working with disabled groups of people' relations might be considered through the certain patterns of interaction. Thе pattern as term recognized as a reliable sample of certain actions formed by speficic repeating regularities of actions between the state and non-governmental organizations. From the one side, such actions based on the official state's position towards NGOs providing services for socially-vulnerable groups of citizens. From another side, these actions are laid on the NGOs' ideas constructed from the practices of solidarities of involved group of people. The patterns of interaction are usually shaped due to the state's policy regarding administration of non-governmental sphere. To understand, what the patterns of interactions between these institutions, we could review the practices of interaction between the state and representatives of third sector working with disabled people. But what are the informal practices when the austerity policy is becoming more relevant in Russia and in Finland that facing with the effects of economic recession and features of neoliberalism era?
For the formation of certain patterns it might formulate case-decriptions and the results of intervieews for the determination of two patterns of interaction between the state and NGOs working with disabled persons
The object of my study is the two non-governmental, non-profit organizations created as a result of grassroots movements. The first is KVPS (Service Foundation for People with Intellectual Disability) from Tampere, Finland and the second is the GAOORDI (Saint-Petersburg Association of Parents Disabled-Children) from Saint-Petersburg. They both engaged in the provision of social care services for people with disabilities.
The subject of my research is relations between charitable non-governmental organizations and state authorities in Russia and Finland.
The aim of this paper is to study the patterns of interaction between charitable NGOs working with disabled people and state authorities and to compare Russian and Finnish patterns while taking into account the context of austerity policy
The objectives are:
· To study different theoretical approaches describing and explaining the foundation of relations between the state authorities and NGO's, phenomenon of work with disabled persons in Russia and Finland;
· to explore the phenomenon of “austerity policy” and describing the process of the economic recession's impact on the welfare policies of Russia and Finland;
· to examine the legislative discourse of relations the state and third sector organizations in Russia and Finland;
· to study the practical relations associated with interaction between the states and non-governmental organizations in Russia and Finland;
· to analyze the similarities and differences in the relations between NGOs working with disabled people and public authorities in Russia and Finland and reveal the main changes in economic conditions, associated with austerity policy;
· to study challenges, constraints and barriers faced with the investigated patterns of interaction and reveal the non-governmental respond;
· to analyze if NGOs are independent from states or not.
The major research question is: “What are the patterns of interaction between the states and NGOs working with disabled people, when Russia and Finland states are placed in the context of austerity policy in the era of neoliberalism nowadays?”
This investigation is based on several ideas describing and explaining the development of relations between the state authorities and NGOs, phenomena of disability and austerity policy. Nowadays the third sector institutions comprise a different organization structures working as neighborhood units, welfare-providers, civic associations, charitable foundations and providing the variety of benefits and services for the their members or clients. The large part of NGOs are involved in the provision of services for socially-vulnerable groups Adalbert Evers, Jean-Louis Laville (2004)The Third Sector in Europe. Edward Elgar publishing. Cheltenham . It seems to me important to emphasize the particular work of civic institutes working with the people with different disabilities. The questions related to disability have very sharp, meaningful and practical nature. These issues were investigated and widely-spread by Tшssebro, Barnes, FergusonJ. Tшssebro (2016) Scandinavian disability policy: From deinstitutionalisation to non-discrimination and beyond. Alter - European Journal of Disability Research. Vol. 10 (2).
J. David Smith, Steven Noll, and Michael L.Wehmeyer (2013) The self-advocacy movement: Intellectual disability in late modern times. Vol. 6, pp. 117-157
C. Barnes, A. Sheldon (2010) Disability, politics and poverty in a majority world context, Disability & Society vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 771-782 and others. The general concept of scientists is to refrain a nature of disability in human experience, policy and services. According to them the disability is the problematic interaction between individual physiology or psychology and the recognition by the common society and further inclusion.
In addition, the Russian scientists as Jakobson and Miloslavskaya, Yarskaya-Smirnova pointed out that the grass-rooted NGOs are the most effective part among all organizations which focus on disabled people support. Such NGOs used to found by the group of activists deeply involving in the work of the organization because of their personal problems and life accidents. They interested in support for people with disability because many of them have been individually faced disabled persons or have a certain disability themselves.
A certain part of NGOs' study is dedicated to the economic reasons of existence of the state-NGOs' relations, such ideas as the inability of cover appropriate level of social protection by the national states and increase of the requirements of funding at the time of decrease of the state spending are used to spread by international institutions (World Bank, 2005) Issues and Options for Improving EngagementBetween the World Bank and Civil Society Organizations
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/CSO/Resources/Issues_and_Options_PUBLISHED_VERSION.pdf . The global economic recession happened in 2007 influenced on the mentioned organizations in each nation state. According to Salamon investigations there are similarities in the happened recessions in 1977-1984 and 2007. The specialty of the last crisis associated with shift of social obligations: countries are restructuring their welfare states and involving NGOs into the state provision of social services and protection clients' welfare. Thus, they both become responsible for provision of social care and support for citizens. However, the further development of interaction might not be possible because of reduced state support and assistance for them in the different reasons. Arguing my interest, I would point this phenomena associated with economic recession impacting on certain actors of civil society in post-crisis is still attracting scientific interests. During my research, I would mention an emergence of articles regarding the economic pressure for the state-NGOs' relations the in Europe. Such works are not aiming to investigation the real existence of austerity in countries but gave me a certain argument for the justification of my research in overall Ulla Pape Rafael Chaves-Avila Benedikt Pahl Frencesca Petrella Bartosz Pielinski Teresa Savall-Morera (2016) Working under pressure: economic recession and third sector development in Europe, International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, Vol. 36, lss 7/8 p. 547
Sophia Lowe, Ted Richmond and John Shields (2017) Settling on Austerity: ISAs, Immigrant Communities and Neoliberal Restructuring. Austerity Urbanism and the Social Economy. pp.14-46.
The core theoretical idea of my research is presented by the Gosta Esping-Andersen's phenomenon of decomodification. The author's phenomenon of decomodification is strengthening the citizen's rights towards the common welfare obligations from the market dependency. But scientist didn't mention non-governmental actors, so their participation in the decomodifiation is unclear Esping-Andersen Gosta (1990) The three worlds of welfare capitalism. Polity Press p.248.
Then, I refer to the Saskia Sasen's idea of “the loosing the states' sovereignty”. According to her, the free circulation of capital, goods, information, and services have impacted on deregulation the state's control. The globalization under these conditions has entailed a partial denationalizing of the national territory and the shift of some components of state sovereignty to other institutions, from supranational entities in the global capital market.
The Sassen's concept seems good to combine with the ideas of the social capital formulated by Bourdieu, Fukuyama and Putnam. The authors tend to frame social capital as a producer of "civic engagement" and also a broad societal measure of common health of the society. Fukuyama and Putnam's works transform social capital from a resource possessed by individuals with an attribute of collectives, focusing on norms and trust as producers of social capital to the exclusion of networks.
According to scholars Ranta, Pestoff, Wijkstrцm, Berggren, Trдgеrd, Block and N. Golovin, I would note that the social capital represents the balance of common interests and can raise the social solidarity, trust between participants and homogeneity. This idea is used to characterize the relations of equality and unification between non-governmental organizations working with disabled people and the state authorities in the Nordic welfare states. Combining this approach to the Russian situation, I would refer to Lytkina's notions of social capital and practices of social solidarity. According to her, the social capital does exist, but it doesn't grow now. The social solidarity is very restricted by own individual and group citizen's interests, so there are tendencies of its reduction Лыткина Т.С. (2012) Социальный капитал в решении социальных проблем: практики солидарности бедных в Республике Коми // Журнал социологии и социальной антропологии, т. 15, №3, c. 130-154.
It's necessary to mention thoughts associated with the negative characterization of the state-NGOs relations. I mean an impact on social capital produced dysfunction of trust' phenomenon. It took my attention to the negative effects of clientelism and corruption in the society presented by Papakostas Папакостас А. (2016) Становление цивилизованной публичной сферы: Недоверие, дооверие и коррупция / М.:ВЦИОМ, - 224с..
The methodological basis of the conducting research consists of a combination of qualitative methods.
Methods of data collection are based on case-study research strategy - comparative detailed analysis of two cases. The first case is KVPS (Service Foundation for People with Intellectual Disability) from Tampere, Finland and the second is the GAOORDI (Saint-Petersburg Association of Non-governmental Organizations of Parents with Disabled-Children) from Saint-Petersburg. These organizations are clear examples of non-governmental non-profit organizations were created as a result of grassroots movements. They both engaged in the provision of social care services for people with disabilities, but their focus groups, destinations of work, relations with the public authorities, organizational structures of branches, sizes of organizations and possibilities are differed from each other.
In accordance the choice of case-study as a research strategy, the following methods will be used:
· document analysis (analysis of federal legislation of Finland, Russian federal and Saint-Petersburg's legislation, especially social-legislative acts regulating forms of establishment, running of activities, forms of support, patterns of interaction)
· in-depth interviews of the heads of NGOs, specialists, civil servants, experts of the third sector, volunteers, clients of NGOs;
· semi-structured participant distinct observation of everyday work of the GAOORDI (Saint-Petersburg) and KVPS (Tampere).
Methods of analyzing data are based on comparative analysis of two cases of non-governmental organizations and provide a detail description of each study-case.
I would expect the evidence of certain change of the welfare state, such as the decrease of the state obligations and delegation part of the state service to non-governmental organizations working with disabled persons in both cases. From the Finnish case was expected to testify a mutual interaction of non-profit organizations and state bodies and further development of the state-non-governmental relations in comparison to Russian case. From the Russian case was expected to testify the paternalistic model of relations that is making worsen the situation with economic difficulties forced by austerity policy context.
The following categories terms are used in the research:
Pattern of interaction - a reliable sample of certain actions formed by specific repeating regularities of actions between the state and non-governmental organizations. From the one side, such actions based on the official state's position towards NGOs providing services for socially-vulnerable groups of citizens. From another side, these actions are laid on the NGOs' ideas constructed from the practices of solidarities of an involved group of people. The patterns of interaction are usually shaped due to the state's policy regarding administration of non-governmental sphere.
Third sector - a broad variety of the civil society's organizations being both independent from the state and the market and playing an important role for civil society. NGO's activities are ranging from neighborhood initiatives, professionalized umbrella organizations, and civic associations to advocacy networks, and charity foundations (Evers Evers Adalbert, Annette Zimmer (2010) Third Sector Organizations Facing Turbulent Environments
Sports, Culture and Social Services in Five European Countries. Nomos, Baden-Baden).
Non-governmental organization (NGO) - institutional form that is not part of the government structure and doesn't distribute own profits to their directors/heads or members. It also self-governing structure where the people take part in freely, without any compulsion (Salamon Salamon Lester M., S. Wojciech, Sokolowski (1999) Global Civil Society. Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies).
Welfare state - a concept of the state's governance where the state presents a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens. It is based on the principles of equality of opportunity, equitable distribution of wealth, and public responsibility for those unable to avail themselves of the minimal provisions for a good life. Due to own characteristics of the principles of equality and spreading the common wealth, the welfare states are classified on liberal, social-democratic and conservative models (Esping-Andersen Esping-Andersen Gosta (1990) The three worlds of welfare capitalism. Polity Press).
Social democratic state - political form of the state whose goal is the gradual improvement of capitalism policy for approval of social justice among citizens. This state characterized by high levels of benefits and services provided by the state. This state opts to “take direct responsibility of caring for children, the aged and the socially vulnerable groups of people (Esping Andersen).
Economic recession -a marked slippage in economic activity, when the GPD, income, employment, industrial production, and sales are following a decline in the aggregate demand for at least two quarters of negative growth The US Bureau of economic analysis - the recession term https://www.bea.gov/faq/index.cfm?faq_id=485.
Austerity policy - official government measures during a period of enforced or extreme economy taken to reduce public spending, particularly in the areas of social welfare and public sector employment Austerity Urbanism and the Social Economy (2017) Alternate Routes. Vol.28. The policy is associated with appropriate minimalism developed from the notions of existential scarcity and stern oversight that resonate with historical meanings of this word and its associations with self-discipline, thrift, and scarcity, but which also exhibit distinctively neoliberal inflections (Jamie Peck, 2015) Jamie Peck (2015) Austerity urbanism. The Neoliberal Crisis of American Cities, Rosa Luxemburg, Stiftung, New York Office.
Neoliberalization - an ideology presenting the decrease of governmental impact as the basis for the reinvigoration and development of private enterprise, free markets, and individual liberty and responsibility (Springer, Birch, MacLeavy, 2014) Simon Springer, Kean Birch, Julie MacLeavy (2016) The handbook of neoliberalism, Routledge.
NGO's internal and external resources - the different type of the economic and human investments accumulated due to the work of the organization.
People with special needs / disabled people - the socially-vulnerable group of people whose abilities or structure of the body has peculiarities of development and differ from common people, because of persistent disorder of body functions, entailing significant or complete incapacitation. Someone who is unable to use part of their body or brain properly because of injury or disease (Yarskaya-Smirnova Ярская-Смирнова Е.Р., Наберушкина Э.К. (2004) Социальная работа с инвалидами. Учеб. пособие. Издание 2-е, переработанное и дополненное. Санкт-Петербург: Изд-во «Питер» 316 с.:).
Structure of the paper:
The paper consists of the introduction, four chapters and conclusion. The first chapter is the theoretical one, it includes the analysis of the theoretical framework of the state-NGOs' relations and the interpretations of social capital approach are considered for the determination egalitarian and paternalistic paterns of interaction. The second chapter focuses on analysis of participant observation on the Finnish case - Kehitysvammaisten Palvelusддtiц, especially its dynamics of interaction between NGO and state actors. The third chapter focuses on the same participant observation of the Russian case - Saint-Petersburg Association of Non-governmental Organizations of Parents with Disabled Children. The forth chapter focuses on analysis of investigated patterns that helped me to elaborate the picture regarding patterns of interaction between mentioned actors in Russia and Finland in the context of austerity policy.
Chapter 1. Theoretical approaches to study relations between state authorities and non-governmental organizations
The aim of this chapter is to study theoretical approaches appropriate for describing the relations and especially patterns of interaction between the non-governmental organizations working with disabled people and the state, so that to determine the sustainable theoretical framework to present comparative research of patterns of the state-NGOs' interactions in chosen countries. The most appropriate theoretical approaches to the analysis of relations of mentioned actors are considered, the phenomenon of labor de-commodification constructing the one of the main basis for the state-NGOs' relations presented by Gosta Esping-Andersen, Saskia Sassen's Globalization concept and its specificity of losing the state sovereignty, and Lytkina's interpretation of the social capital theory.
1.1 Theoretical frames of investigation the state-NGOs' relations during marketization
The certain crisis of the welfare state and its transformation in western industrial countries as well in the former socialist countries arouse interest in the theoretical study of civil society and its relations with the state.
I would share the certain notion of sociologists as Henderson and Howard that the civil society is a space or social sphere that is located between the market, state and family institutions. The basic sign of the civil society is represented by different non-governmental institutions that are offering new ways of producing welfare Henderson S. (2003) Building Democracy in Contemporary Russia: Western Support to Grassroots Organizations. Ithaca: Cornell University Press
Howard M. (2002) Postcommunist Civil Society in Comparative Perspective. Demokratizatsiya. Vol. 10. № 3. P. 285-306. Referring to Suvi Salmenniemi, the role of the third sector in the post-socialist countries is associated with the desire of destroying the state-paternalistic model of the welfare state and transferring the fulfillment of its obligations to public organizations and the market. As for the western countries, their governments are seeking to reduce the dominance of the state sector and transfer own social obligations to the non-governmental and commercial sectors in the context of global competition Суви Салменниеми -Теория гражданского общества и постсоциализм _, Журнал исследований социальной политики, том 7, № 4, 2009 pp. 442-446. In general, the author mentioned that the welfare state crisis and the rise of neoliberal tendencies in the policy of states are significantly connected. She is arguing that these tendencies are part of the globalizing capitalist system.
Studying the literature regarding the non-governmental sector I would recognize the certain focus of interests regarding the investigation of NGOs' affairs. There are methodological studying the NGO as vivid actors of the civil society, the practical investigations of non-governmental participation in international aid or economics of the certain countries, struggling for human-rights and ecological environment, revealing the innovative practices of non-governmental work and implementation of such practices and etc. Unlike of them, my interest is focused on the understanding how practically the interaction between the welfare states of Russia and Finland and non-governmental actors formed by grass-root initiatives is constructed and changed due to the impact of austerity policy.
Despite of the majority of studies regarding the state and third sector relations, the literature review didn't get me a certain specific theory or approach describing the relations of NGOs working with disabled persons and the state authorities. Also, there is a lack of theories, describing the phenomenon of austerity policy. Instead of austerity policy, scientists are considering the idea of a permanent austerity and neo-liberal restructuring. For example, Evans and Richmond and Shields are arguing the phenomenon of the new public management as the reason of the social provision restructuring Bryan Evans, Ted Richmond & John Shields (2005) Structuring Neoliberal Governance: The Nonprofit Sector, Emerging New Modes of Control and the Marketisation of Service Delivery, Policy and Society, 24:1, pp. 73-97. So, I've decided to collect important features of several theoretical approaches through the discourse analysis of my field notes. Due to that, the de-commodification of Esping-Andersen, Lytkina's social solidarity practices, Sassen's phenomenon of loosing the state sovereignty and are taken for the theoretical ground.
1.2 De-commodification phenomenon as basis for the NGO-state relations
The ideas of Esping-Andersen's comparative welfare regime approach can be applied to the consideration of the recent picture of the patterns of interactions in NGO-state issues. Among Esping-Andersen's ideas the most valuable for this research is the description of de-commodification. This phenomenon could give us a certain recognition how the welfare states shaped own specificity due to the spreading of social benefits among the population. De-commodification supposes that welfare benefits of individual or a certain group of people should be spread by the state in such way, where they can maintain the common standards for live independently from the market participation. Doing that, the phenomenon of de-commodification establishes unity and solidarity among the groups of people. Simply to say the usual citizen recognizes what kind of welfare benefits are very useful for him and share this information among the persons who have the same social status.
Such phenomenon leads to the creation of a capability of emergence the new collective actions. Describing the de-commodification, Esping-Andersen mentioned Polanyi who was arguing that this phenomenon is the early stage to the acceptable security and welfare of individuals. Both authors mentioned that the welfare state development, especially the phenomenon of de-commodification is facing with different challenges and pressures from wide market mechanisms Esping-Andersen Gosta (1990) The three worlds of welfare capitalism. Polity Press. p. 37. Referring to that idea, I can point the actuality of the market pressure that has a negative impact on the welfare's independence and survival of social benefits. As an evidence, the welfare states nowadays are facing with the reformation of social policies to the liberal principles of work.
Esping-Andersen supposes the difference in usage of the state sources for spreading welfare benefits (the de-commodification) in the particular country. The existence of such phenomenon is argued by the difference in the political systems. This research has testified the difference of de-commodification presented by the Finnland, determined by Esping-Andersen as social democratic state and Russia, non-investigated by the author. There is no reliable idea what kind of welfare state Russia has, but I would argue about the certain level of de-commodification towards socially-vulnerable categories of citizens.
There is one unclearness of Esping-Andersen's concept, the author didn't mention non-governmental organizations among the participating actors of the process of de-commodification. However, some scientists are arguing that the informal non-governmental practices of spreading the benefits should be added into account, for example, Good Worth argued that the certain rights and entitlements can be grown by informal domains of social relationships and cultural characteristics of society. Part of them has a specific structure as NGOs, churches or charitable activities, another part consists from clientelists and reciprocal mechanisms as a kinship Wood, Geof and Gough, Ian A. (2006) comparative welfare regime approach to global social policy. World Development, 34 (10), pp. 1696-1712. .
In overall, the phenomenon of de-commodification testified the certain sovereignty in regard of the spreading welfare benefits and social solidarity for socially-vulnerable groups of citizens as from the formal state institutions responsible for the state welfare as well from the informal institutions or non-governmental public benefit organizations. Thus, there is a possibility to use such concept for construction a scope of theories for my investigation.
1.3 The loosing of the state sovereignty as a key feature for study the recent tendencies
In comparison with the Esping-Andrsen's idea of existence of certain sovereignty among the processes of spreading welfare benefits, it is interesting to emphasize the recent realities associated with globalization features. I mean the changes in the relations of the state and non governmental institutions due to economic and social processes. It turns into the focus of the Saskia Sassen's theory and its phenomenon of losing the state's sovereignty.
In general, a sovereignty as a term was established after the second World War and associated with the necessary condition for the political legitimacy of the government, but this phenomenon was testified even much earlier in the Aristotel's century where it was an attribute of the legitimate power of the individual. Sassen argued that during history, all nations were accumulating sovereignty through the different ways of management, as a result we have the exclusive territoriality and sovereign states with different power actors and systems of governance. Besides the existence of the sovereignty, the states are framed by exclusive territoriality. Sassen pays attention to the evidence of “the other forms of concentration of power and sovereignty” presented by non-territorial and non exclusive systems as catholic or orthodox churches and Arab nation. It gives an evidence for author that sovereignty is raised differently. At the same time, Sassen pointed out the emergence of by the actual limitedness of the territories. It leads to the restriction of exclusive territoriality and sovereign rights of the individual or group of people. In opposition, the high-management of foreign embassy is inviolable and has special rights regarding sovereignty that additionally testified the contradictory nature of the state sovereignty and territorialitySaskia Sassen (1996) Losing Control?: Sovereignty in the Age of Globalization, Columbia University Press, p. 4.
Continuing the description, I would refer to Sassen's opinion regarding the economic globalization that's declining the significance of the national state and losing the state's sovereignty. The author does not completely agree with the general notion associated with the decrease of the state's role. According to Sassen, the intersection of state's sovereignty and territory does exist and depend on the dynamic of the global world-economy. This intersection is constructed of three components: territoriality of the global economy, the ascendance of governing cross-border transactions, virtualization of economic activity. These components are often characterized as “the de-regularization” of the state and produce the phenomenon of losing of the state's sovereignty. Each of the components is describing a certain conditions of economic de-regularization happened in the national state Ibid, p.5. Applying this approach to my investigation, I would comment that all components correlate with the relations of non-governmental institutions and the states and present a certain impact on the losing the state's sovereignty regarding provision social obligations to the socially-vulnerable citizens.
Let's start from the territoriality of the global economy. Implicating such component to the non-governmental-state relations, we might suppose that the state-NGOs' relations are depend from the economic level of a certain territory. Especially, in the less developed territories the state's sovereignty of provision the social obligations will be differ from the same phenomenon in the countries with developed economy.
Sassen was arguing about the supremacy of neoliberal concept revealing emphasis on markets, deregulation, and free international trade, influenced policy in Britain, the USA and the continental part of Europe. Applying the author's ascendance of governing cross-border transactions grown by a general system of arbitration and credit-rating agencies, we might assume that the losing state's sovereignty is happening due to the efforts of the international non-governmental institutions working world-widely and sharing ideas of welfareSaskia Sassen (1996) Losing Control?: Sovereignty in the Age of Globalization, Columbia University Press. 6. As an example is raising the work of ecological and humanitarian international non-governmental organizations in postwar time. At the time of the provision of the state obligations slowly affecting on the welfare and these institutions are trying to maintain own logic of developing and spreading welfare benefits for certain groups of people.
Thus, the efforts of international organizations might effect to the loss of the state's sovereignty in the provision of social obligations for citizens.
The last Sassen's component refers to virtualization of economic activity. Scientists argued that mentioned raise the number of virtual economic activities impacts on the state institutions as well on the private non-government sector. The non-governmental organizations are depending on new technologies for making profit even more than the state cause it helps them to develop the flows of income and raise their independence from the state's sources. The examples of successful virtualizations of economic activities are the fund-raising and crowd-funding activities that are established by NGOs for growing economic profit through the establishment of digital instruments for donations. Discussing such Sassen's idea, I would add my assumption that the raise of economic activities of NGOs might be traced not only through the virtualization process but also through the avoidance of economic restrictions for NGOs. This avoidance of traditional restrictions forces the citizens to establish a certain partnerships between several NGOs to achieve common aims and interests. For example, I would argue the existence of NGOs establishing own social enterpreneurships. It helps them to survive and realize own ideas independently from the state and attract additional sponsors.
Thus the virtualuzation of economic activities together with my idea of avoidance of the economic restrictions for NGOs are having an impact on the loosing state's sovereignty in the provision of social obligations for citizens
In my opinion, the phenomenon of losing sovereignty, and especially described components of intersection are useful for further construction of theoretical foundations for the patterns of interaction between the state and NGOs working with disability. It might be a one of the components for further sociological study of the state-non-governmental relations.
1.4 The social capital theory as additional source of conceptualization
The social capital theory is popular and widely used approach for investigation different aspects of sociological studies. A lot attention was paid to categorize different forms of resources for all social actors. But at the same time the concept of social capital is “blurred” and has many interpretations Лыткина Т.С. (2012) Социальный капитал в решении социальных проблем: практики солидарности бедных в Республике Коми // Журнал социологии и социальной антропологии, т. 15, №3. p. 133..The various definitions in regard to different concepts of this term were developed due to the complexity of its investigation. However, the studies of non-governmental organizations providing goods for clients (public-benefit organizations) can be based on social capital theory.
From the variety of interpretations of social capital I have chosen the most relevant approaches for my research presented by Bourdieu, Putnam, Fukuyama and Lytkina. All of them are considering the social capital through the different focuses and can be applied for study of the patterns of interactions between the state and NGOs working with disabled people.
I will state from the ideas of the social capital theory presented by Piere Bourdieu. His approach of social capital characterized the focus on social groups. According to him, social capital is built from the opportunities and advantages when the people get united by group. The members of the group are focused on making a profit in the mutually beneficial exchange with each other. Following the scientist' logic, the social capital will exist as long as each member of the group get benefits and individual interests of group-members coincide ultimately with the interests of the whole group. Bourdieu puts the social groups and networks on the social institutions' position based on mutual recognition and obligatory reproduction of social capital Bourdieu, P. (1986) The Forms of Capital. In J. Richardson (Ed.) Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. New York, p. 51. Bourdieu considers the formation of social capital as a process of social interaction among groups of the population that arises as a result of the realization of personal interests in interaction with other persons. For his interpretation there is no problem of the lack of social networks between the social groups because everyday life itself recreates mutually beneficial social networks as a result of people's interaction. The ideas about natural reproduction of social network has contradictory nature and described further.
Following the Bourdieu's idea that there is no society without social networks, part of the sociologists argue about the existence of severance of social networks. Especially they testified the gap between the personal and public interests. Such problem can be seen through the works of F. Fukuyama, R. Putnam. Both scholars pay attention to the priority of public interests over individual. Scientists didn't reject the economic principles of behavior of a rational person, however they strengthened the cultural component in the formation of social capital. Such component is determining the specifics of social relationships as ways of mutual support, communication and etc.
According to Fukuyama's approach, the social capital is presented by the forms of voluntary and initiative communities with common moral norms and values based on trust. It is a certain potential of the society or its part, emerging as a result of trust existence. The social capital can be constructed by a small social collective as family or bigger one as a whole nation. At the same time, such forms of civic initiatives are important for every part of life, not only for solving economic problems. According to him, the social capital can be the product of individual desire, thus it grows from the priorities of public interests under the personal interests Фукуяма Ф. (2004) Доверие: социальные добродетели и путь к процветанию: Пер. с англ. М.: Издательство ACT, C. 11-24 .
The idea of a cultural component in the construction of social capital is also traced through Putnam's works. Unlike Bourdieu's logic, he considered that social capital is as a public benefit. He points that social capital refers to "historically grounded connections between individuals - social networks and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from them" Putnam, R. (2000). Bowling Alone: the Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster.p. 19. In addition, such process asumes a wide spread of various kinds of voluntary forms of unification and citizens' engagement into the policy in order to solve the problems that the community faced. Following Putnam's idea, there are three elements of the social capital - social values (for example trust and unity), moral obligations and norms, and social networks, especially voluntary relations. Putnam, R. with Leonardi R., Nanetti R. Y. (1994). Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. pp.170-224. Putnam determined social capital as a producer of "civic engagement" and also presented it as a broad societal measure of communal health. He also transforms social capital from a resource possessed by individuals to an attribute of collectives, focusing on norms and trust as producers of social capital to the exclusion of networks.
Both scientists were arguing about the raising of social capital due to the process of civic engagement and economic growth. One of the Putnam's argument that development of unions and associations leads to the generalization of trust among the society. If there is a successful case of the trust relations between people and institutions on a small scale, it might develop the further trust on the higher societal level Putnam, R. with Leonardi R., Nanetti R. Y. (1994). Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p.143. In addition to that, there is Fukuyama note that social capital has been regarded as one of the main elements in the creation of maintenance and economic prosperity Фукуяма Ф. (2004) Доверие: социальные добродетели и путь к процветанию: Пер. с англ. М.: Издательство ACT, C. 20.
Thus, Putnam and Fukuyama argue a close connection between the severe social problems, on the one hand, and the decline of social capital and the severance of social networks on the other. Considering that the social capital as one of the most important factors in the state's development, they both insisted to restore confidence of civic institutions, primarily to unions and associations covered by the general term of the non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Concluding their ideas, the non-governmental forms of activities might become a basis for social solidarity of citizens and be an instrument for accumulation of the social capital. Referring to M. Block and N. Golovin, the difference of the social capital approach gives us the picture of common characteristics: the social capital occurs and increases by the interaction of participants involved in social relations. This phenomenon creates the basis for collective actions М. Блок, Н. А. Головин (2015) Социальный капитал: к обобщению понятия, Вестник Санкт-Петербургского университета, вып.4, C. 109.
It seems to me interesting to continue to the discourse of social capital through the interpretation produced by Tatiana Lytkina. An interest of interpretation is caused by her applied research concerning solidarity practices in solving social problems in the certain regions of Russia. Scientists consider the phenomenon of social capital as a way of investment in people through the social relations, using them as resources. During the process of the social capital formation, both material and non-material human resources are collected that contribute to the further growth of social capital. According to Lytkina, the formation of social capital happens due to the density of social networks, trust and solidarity. In general, it might be called the practices of solidarities. These phenomena are formed by the common interests and shared values of people....
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